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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns to induce innate immune responses and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interferons and anti-inflammatory cytokines. TLRs activate downstream effectors through adaptors that contain Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domains, but the mechanisms accounting for(More)
Chlamydia pneumoniae is an obligate intracellular human pathogen causing diseases such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and pharyngitis. Because of its intracellular replication, cell-mediated immune responses are needed to mediate successful defenses of the host. Because dendritic cells play a central role in linking innate immunity and Ag-specific cell-mediated(More)
Recognition of microbial components by APCs and their activation through Toll-like receptors (TLR) leads to the induction of adaptive immune responses. In this study, we show that activation of TLR2 by its synthetic ligand Pam3Cys, in contrast to activation of TLR9 by immunostimulatory DNA (ISS-ODN), induces a prominent Th2-biased immune response.(More)
The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with chronic respiratory, atherosclerotic, and rheumatic disease. The alveolar macrophage (AM) is a potential target cell for the pathogen and may contribute to respiratory immunopathology. We therefore investigated in vitro the interaction between chlamydiae and macrophages with(More)
Immune cell-mediated tissue injury is a common feature of different inflammatory diseases, yet the pathogenetic mechanisms and cell types involved vary significantly. Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) represents a group of inflammatory diseases that is characterized by increased numbers of pathogenic eosinophilic granulocytes in the peripheral blood and(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is a leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Type I interferon (IFN-I), whose contribution to antiviral and intracellular bacterial immunity is well established, is also elicited during pneumococcal infection, yet its functional significance is not(More)
Investigation of immune-cell differentiation and function is limited by shortcomings of suitable and scalable experimental systems. Here we show that retroviral delivery of an estrogen-regulated form of Hoxb8 into mouse bone marrow cells can be used along with Flt3 ligand to conditionally immortalize early hematopoietic progenitor cells (Hoxb8-FL cells).(More)
The interactions between genetic and environmental factors play a major role in the development of childhood asthma. We hypothesized that a pre-existing Th2/asthmatic response can promote Th2 responses to newly encountered Ags (i.e., phenotype spread). To test this hypothesis, we developed a mouse model in which the requirements for the induction and(More)
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