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Crotoxin, the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, was the first snake venom protein to be purified and crystallized. Crotoxin is a heterodimeric beta-neurotoxin that consists of a weakly toxic basic phospholipase A(2) and a non-enzymatic, non-toxic acidic component (crotapotin). The classic biological activities(More)
Pentraxins are a superfamily of conserved proteins involved in the acute-phase response and innate immunity. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a prototypical member of the long pentraxin subfamily, is a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity that is essential for resistance to certain pathogens. A regulatory role for pentraxins in inflammation has long been(More)
Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to(More)
Asian Americans are one of the fastest-growing populations in the United States. A relatively large subset of this population carries a unique loss-of-function point mutation in aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*2. Found in approximately 560 million people of East Asian descent, ALDH2*2 reduces enzymatic activity by approximately 60% to 80% in(More)
Diabetic nephropathy is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors provide imperfect renoprotection in advanced type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk remains elevated. Endothelin (ET)-1 has a role in renal and cardiac dysfunction in diabetes. Here, we assessed whether combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor(More)
We have shown that the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus induces a long-lasting antinociceptive effect mediated by activation of kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. Despite being mediated by opioid receptors, prolonged treatment with the crotalid venom does not cause the development of peripheral tolerance or abstinence(More)
Neuropathic pain is an important clinical problem and it is usually resistant to the current therapy. We have recently characterized a novel analgesic peptide, crotalphine, from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. In the present work, the antinociceptive effect of crotalphine was evaluated in an experimental model of(More)
AIMS Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) reflects abnormal pulmonary vascular resistance and causes right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy. Enhancement of the late sodium current (INaL) may result from hypertrophic remodelling. The study tests whether: (i) constitutive INaL enhancement may occur as part of PAH-induced myocardial remodelling; (ii) ranolazine(More)
Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2(More)
BACKGROUND The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in the pathogenesis of ARDS, Angiotensin II (Ang-II) contributing to the pathogenesis of inflammation and fibrogenesis. Angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) may antagonize the effects of Ang-II. This study was aimed at evaluating the potential for Ang-(1-7) to reduce injury, inflammation and fibrosis in an(More)