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Simian immunodeficiency viruses of sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) are the source of multiple, successful cross-species transmissions, having given rise to HIV-2 in humans, SIVmac in rhesus macaques, and SIVstm in stump-tailed macaques. Cellular assays and phylogenetic comparisons indirectly support a role for TRIM5alpha, the product of the TRIM5 gene, in(More)
The ancestors of the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1 and HIV-2) may have evolved from a reservoir of African nonhuman primate lentiviruses, termed simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). None of the SIV strains characterized so far are closely related to HIV-1. HIV-2, however, is closely related to SIV (SIVmac) isolated from captive rhesus macaques(More)
The prevalence, natural history, and genetic characteristics of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections in most feral African monkey species are presently unknown, yet this information is essential to elucidate their origin and relationship to other simian and human immunodeficiency viruses. In this study, a combination of classical and molecular(More)
Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) are targets of CD4-independent infection by HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains in vitro and in vivo. Infection of BCECs may provide a portal of entry for the virus into the central nervous system and could disrupt blood-brain barrier function, contributing to the development of AIDS dementia. We(More)
Two novel simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from wild-caught red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus torquatus) from Nigeria were characterized. Sequence analysis of the fully sequenced SIV strain rcmNG411 (SIVrcmNG411) and gag and pol sequence of SIVrcmNG409 revealed that they were genetically most closely related to the recently characterized(More)
The primate lentiviruses comprise SIV strains from various host species, as well as two viruses, HIV-1 and HIV-2, that cause AIDS in humans. The origins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been traced to cross-species transmissions from chimpanzees and sooty mangabey monkeys respectively. Two approaches have been taken to estimate the time-scale of the evolution of(More)
Preclinical studies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine candidates have typically shown post-infection virological control, but protection against acquisition of infection has previously only been reported against neutralization-sensitive virus challenges. Here we demonstrate vaccine protection against acquisition of fully heterologous,(More)
Elucidation of the phylogenetic origins of simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIV and HIV) is fundamental to the understanding of HIV pathogenesis and the spread of AIDS worldwide. In this study, we molecularly characterized multiple SIVAGM isolates from four different African green monkey species (vervet, grivet, sabaeus and tantalus monkeys).(More)
An infectious molecular clone of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVsm was derived from a biological isolate obtained late in disease from an immunodeficient rhesus macaque (E543) with SIV-induced encephalitis. The molecularly cloned virus, SIVsmE543-3, replicated well in macaque peripheral blood mononuclear cells and monocyte-derived macrophages and resisted(More)
African green monkeys are asymptomatic carriers of simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV), commonly called SIVagm. As many as 50% of African green monkeys in the wild may be SIV seropositive. This high seroprevalence rate and the potential for genetic variation of lentiviruses suggested to us that African green monkeys may harbor widely differing genotypes(More)