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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteases involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MMPs induce direct myelin degradation, leukocyte infiltration, disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and/or extracellular matrix(More)
Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by(More)
Reduced protective immunity leads to viral persistence and demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the phenotype of brain-infiltrating leukocytes and cytokine expression in susceptible SJL and resistant C57BL/6 mice during Theilervirus-induced acute polioencephalitis. In contrast to C57/BL6 mice, SJL(More)
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging orthobunyavirus of ruminants associated with outbreaks of congenital malformations in aborted and stillborn animals. Since its discovery in November 2011, SBV has spread very rapidly to many European countries. Here, we developed molecular and serological tools, and an experimental in vivo model as a platform to(More)
Technical Appendix. Absolute numbers and percentages of animals that were positive for Schmallenberg virus according to in situ hybridization (ISH) in relation to central nervous system inflammation and occurrence of skeletal and brain malformations. Data refer to absolute numbers of 82 small and large ruminants that were positive for Schmallenberg virus by(More)
Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common demyelinating central nervous system diseases in young adults. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) is a widely used virus-induced murine model for human myelin disorders. Immunosuppressive approaches generally reduce antiviral immunity and therefore increase virus dissemination with clinical worsening. In(More)
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered Bunyavirus associated mainly with abortions, stillbirths and malformations of the skeletal and central nervous system (CNS) in newborn ruminants. In this study, a detailed immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells of the CNS of affected animals was carried out in order to increase our understanding of SBV(More)
OBJECTIVES Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection of mice is a widely used animal model for demyelinating disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to identify topographical differences of TMEV spread and demyelination in the brain of experimentally infected susceptible SJL/J mice and resistant C57BL/6(More)
Canine distemper virus (CDV) exhibits a profound lymphotropism that causes immunosuppression and increased susceptibility of affected dogs to opportunistic infections. Similar to human measles virus, CDV is supposed to inhibit terminal differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs), responsible for disturbed repopulation of lymphoid tissues and diminished antigen(More)