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Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by(More)
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging orthobunyavirus of ruminants associated with outbreaks of congenital malformations in aborted and stillborn animals. Since its discovery in November 2011, SBV has spread very rapidly to many European countries. Here, we developed molecular and serological tools, and an experimental in vivo model as a platform to(More)
The so-called Schmallenberg virus (SBV), first detected in a German town of the same name in October 2011, is a novel emerging orthobunyavirus in Europe causing malformations and severe economic loss in ruminants. This report describes lesions in 40 sheep, 2 goats, and 16 cattle naturally infected with SBV as determined by real-time quantitative reverse(More)
Understanding the basic mechanisms that control CNS remyelination is of direct clinical relevance. Suitable model systems include the analysis of naturally occurring and genetically generated mouse mutants and the transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) following experimental demyelination. However, aforementioned studies were exclusively(More)
This report is the first description of a spinal epidermoid cyst (EC) in a SJL mouse and gives an overview on the occurrence of ECs in animals including dogs, horses, mice and rats. The EC was not detected grossly and the mouse did not display clinical signs or an altered rotarod performance. Microscopically, there was an oval cyst lined by stratified(More)
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered Bunyavirus associated mainly with abortions, stillbirths and malformations of the skeletal and central nervous system (CNS) in newborn ruminants. In this study, a detailed immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells of the CNS of affected animals was carried out in order to increase our understanding of SBV(More)
An equid herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5) infection was detected in lesioned skin from a nine-year-old Holsteiner stallion in the south of Germany. Macroscopically, the animal displayed a non-pruritic, multifocal, pustular dermatitis around both eyes, nostrils and the muzzle, which had been ongoing for one year. Histopathologically, skin lesions were characterized by(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of extracellular proteases involved in the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether MMPs induce direct myelin degradation, leukocyte infiltration, disruption of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and/or extracellular matrix(More)
Reduced protective immunity leads to viral persistence and demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the phenotype of brain-infiltrating leukocytes and cytokine expression in susceptible SJL and resistant C57BL/6 mice during Theilervirus-induced acute polioencephalitis. In contrast to C57/BL6 mice, SJL(More)