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Acquisition of detailed knowledge of the structure and evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi populations is essential for control of Chagas disease. We profiled 75 strains of the parasite with five nuclear microsatellite loci, 24Salpha RNA genes, and sequence polymorphisms in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene. We also used sequences available in(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture.(More)
Mitochondria are the main source of energy for neurons and have a role in many vital neuronal functions. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been described in schizophrenia, and antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine have been associated with differences in gene expression in mitochondria. We investigated the hypothesis that nuclear-encoded mitochondrial(More)
We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups).(More)
A large number of studies has investigated the hypothesis that DRD4 48 bp variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism is involved in the etiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. However, the results are inconsistent likely due to genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Age at onset (AAO) is considered an important alternate phenotype for(More)
We examined the influence of the genome-wide significant schizophrenia risk variant rs1625579 near the microRNA (miRNA)-137 (MIR137) gene on well-established sources of phenotypic variability in schizophrenia: age-at-onset of psychosis and brain structure. We found that the MIR137 risk genotype strongly predicts an earlier age-at-onset of psychosis across(More)
There is a consensus that modern humans arrived in the Americas 15,000-20,000 y ago during the Late Pleistocene, most probably from northeast Asia through Beringia. However, there is still debate about the time of entry and number of migratory waves, including apparent inconsistencies between genetic and morphological data on Paleoamericans. Here we report(More)
OBJECTIVES Antipsychotics with high weight gain-inducing propensities influence the expression of immune and neurotrophin genes, which have been independently related to obesity indices. Thus, we investigated whether variants in the genes encoding interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met are associated with(More)
AIM TSPO is a neuroinflammatory biomarker and emerging therapeutic target in psychiatric disorders. We evaluated whether TSPO polymorphisms contribute to interindividual variability in schizophrenia, antipsychotic efficacy and antipsychotic-induced weight gain. PATIENTS & METHODS We analyzed TSPO polymorphisms in 670 schizophrenia cases and 775 healthy(More)
While South Americans are underrepresented in human genomic diversity studies, Brazil has been a classical model for population genetics studies on admixture. We present the results of the EPIGEN Brazil Initiative, the most comprehensive up-to-date genomic analysis of any Latin-American population. A population-based genome-wide analysis of 6,487(More)