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Frankia strain CcI3 produces 2 truncated hemoglobins, HbN and HbO. Using ion-exchange chromatography, we characterized the expression of the relative amounts of HbN and HbO in -N (nitrogen-fixing) cultures and +N (nitrogen-supplemented) cultures. The -N cultures maintained an approximately constant ratio of HbO to HbN throughout the life of the culture,(More)
Plants in terrestrial systems have evolved in direct association with microbes functioning as both agonists and antagonists of plant fitness and adaptability. As such, investigations that segregate plants and microbes provide only a limited scope of the biotic interactions that dictate plant community structure and composition in natural systems. Invasive(More)
The soil microbial community acts as a reservoir of microbes that directly influences the structure and composition of the aboveground plant community, promotes plant growth, increases stress tolerance and mediates local patterns of nutrient cycling. Direct interactions between plants and rhizosphere-dwelling microorganisms occur at, or near, the surface of(More)
The phytophagous fruit fly Rhagoletis meigenii harbors the bacterium Wolbachia pipientis and, together with Japanese barberry, form a tri-partite symbiosis. R. meigenii is a seed predator of invasive Japanese barberry plants and is dependent on this insect-plant interaction for reproductive success. The endosymbiotic bacterium W. pipientis is a reproductive(More)
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