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Whole-exome or gene targeted resequencing in hundreds to thousands of individuals has shown that the majority of genetic variants are at low frequency in human populations. Rare variants are enriched for functional mutations and are expected to explain an important fraction of the genetic etiology of human disease, therefore having a potential medical(More)
Mutations in the mitochondrial genome are associated with multiple diseases and biological processes; however, little is known about the extent of sequence variation in the mitochondrial transcriptome. By ultra-deeply sequencing mitochondrial RNA (>6000×) from the whole blood of ~1000 individuals from the CARTaGENE project, we identified remarkable levels(More)
The host mechanisms responsible for protection against malaria remain poorly understood, with only a few protective genetic effects mapped in humans. Here, we characterize a host-specific genome-wide signature in whole-blood transcriptomes of Plasmodium falciparum-infected West African children and report a demonstration of genotype-by-infection(More)
One of the most rapidly evolving genes in humans, PRDM9, is a key determinant of the distribution of meiotic recombination events. Mutations in this meiotic-specific gene have previously been associated with male infertility in humans and recent studies suggest that PRDM9 may be involved in pathological genomic rearrangements. In studying genomes from(More)
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a congenital blood disease, affecting predominantly children from sub-Saharan Africa, but also populations world-wide. Although the causal mutation of SCD is known, the sources of clinical variability of SCD remain poorly understood, with only a few highly heritable traits associated with SCD having been identified. Phenotypic(More)
18 Running title: Relaxed selection during a recent human expansion 19 29. CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license peer-reviewed) is the author/funder. It is made available under a The copyright holder for this preprint (which was not. Abstract 30 Humans have colonized the planet through a series of range expansions, which deeply impacted 31 genetic diversity(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES The urinary excretion of uromodulin is influenced by common variants in the UMOD gene, and it may be related to NaCl retention and hypertension. Levels of uromodulin are also dependent of the renal function, but other determinants remain unknown. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS We tested associations between the(More)
Perturbations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the human prefrontal cortex have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ), but the mechanisms are unclear. NKCC1 (SLC12A2) is a Cl(-)-importing cation-Cl(-) cotransporter that contributes to the maintenance of depolarizing GABA activity in immature neurons, and variation in(More)
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