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Human and veterinarian pharmaceuticals have been detected in the aquatic environment for a number of years, but the potential for biological effects in exposed aquatic organism is only now being reported. The lipid regulator, gemfibrozil (GEM) is detected at microg/L concentrations in domestic wastewater and ng/L concentrations in surface waters. We(More)
A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the(More)
The distribution of lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I and -III has been extensively characterized by immunocytochemistry in the forebrain of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. However, the cellular location of lamprey GnRH-III mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the lamprey brain has not been determined. We show for the first time(More)
In Canada, the use of botanical natural health products (NHPs) for anxiety disorders is on the rise, and a critical evaluation of their safety and efficacy is required. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available botanicals directly affect the primary brain enzymes responsible for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism.(More)
The phytochemistry and biological activity of Scutellaria lateriflora L. (American skullcap) which has been traditionally used as a sedative and to treat various nervous disorders such as anxiety was studied. In vivo animal behaviour trials were performed to test anxiolytic effects in rats orally administered S. laterifolia extracts. Significant increases(More)
The objectives of this study were to characterize rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-binding protein (CRF-BP) cDNA and to examine the variations in CRF-BP and CRF mRNA levels in response to different intensities of stress. Trout were physically disturbed by a single or three consecutive periods of chasing until(More)
Models are essential for the full understanding of neuroendocrine control processes. In this regard fish offer a rich source of biological material. They have diverse growth and reproductive strategies, inhabiting most of the Earth's aquatic ecological niches. Fish possess many of the common vertebrate features but also offer several unique aspects to allow(More)
Auto-regulation of the three goldfish estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes was examined simultaneously in multiple tissues, in relation to mRNA levels of liver vitellogenin (VTG) and brain transcripts. Male goldfish were implanted with a silastic implant containing either no steroid or 17beta-estradiol (E2) (100 microg/g body mass) for one and seven days. Liver(More)
17-alpha ethinylestradiol (EE2), a pharmaceutical estrogen, is detectable in water systems worldwide. Although studies report on the effects of xenoestrogens in tissues such as liver and gonad, few studies to date have investigated the effects of EE2 in the vertebrate brain at a large scale. The purpose of this study was to develop a goldfish brain-enriched(More)
Double-labelling studies at the electron microscopic level demonstrated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-immunoreactive nerve endings are associated with growth-hormone-secreting cells in the proximal pars distalis of the goldfish pituitary gland, suggesting that GABA may be important for the control of growth hormone release in this species. An in vitro(More)