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Human and veterinarian pharmaceuticals have been detected in the aquatic environment for a number of years, but the potential for biological effects in exposed aquatic organism is only now being reported. The lipid regulator, gemfibrozil (GEM) is detected at microg/L concentrations in domestic wastewater and ng/L concentrations in surface waters. We(More)
The objectives of this study were to characterize rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-binding protein (CRF-BP) cDNA and to examine the variations in CRF-BP and CRF mRNA levels in response to different intensities of stress. Trout were physically disturbed by a single or three consecutive periods of chasing until(More)
A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the(More)
The distribution of lamprey gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-I and -III has been extensively characterized by immunocytochemistry in the forebrain of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. However, the cellular location of lamprey GnRH-III mRNA expression by in situ hybridization in the lamprey brain has not been determined. We show for the first time(More)
In Canada, the use of botanical natural health products (NHPs) for anxiety disorders is on the rise, and a critical evaluation of their safety and efficacy is required. The purpose of this study was to determine whether commercially available botanicals directly affect the primary brain enzymes responsible for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism.(More)
BACKGROUND There are conflicting reports regarding the effects of atrazine (ATZ) on amphibian development. Therefore, further studies are needed to examine the potential mechanisms of action of ATZ in amphibians. OBJECTIVES Our aim in this study was to determine whether low concentrations of ATZ affect gonadal development and metamorphosis in the Northern(More)
During the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog, there are critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. The aim of the present study was to identify sensitive developmental periods for estrogenic endocrine disruption in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens)(More)
Wild semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla) eat n-3 fatty acids to prime their muscles for long migrations. Sedentary bobwhite quails (Colinus virginianus) were used as a model to investigate the mechanisms for this natural doping. Our goal was to characterize the stimulating effects of n-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(More)
Both glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are involved in pituitary hormone release in fish. Glutamate serves 2 purposes, both as a neurotransmitter and as a precursor for GABA synthesis. Glutamate can be catabolized to GABA by the actions of 2 distinct but related enzymes, glutamate decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) and GAD67. They derive from 2 different(More)
The phytochemistry and biological activity of Scutellaria lateriflora L. (American skullcap) which has been traditionally used as a sedative and to treat various nervous disorders such as anxiety was studied. In vivo animal behaviour trials were performed to test anxiolytic effects in rats orally administered S. laterifolia extracts. Significant increases(More)