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More than 200 known diseases are transmitted through food (1). The causes of foodborne illness include viruses, bacteria, parasites, toxins, metals, and prions, and the symptoms of foodborne illness range from mild gastroenteritis to life-threatening neurologic, hepatic, and renal syndromes. In the United States, foodborne diseases have been estimated to(More)
SCOPE OF THE PROBLEM Toxoplasmosis is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Acute infections in pregnant women can be transmitted to the fetus and cause severe illness (e.g., mental retardation, blindness, and epilepsy). An estimated 400-4,000 cases of congenital toxoplasmosis occur each year in the United States. Of the 750(More)
In 1986 Puerto Rico experienced its eleventh dengue outbreak of this century, but the first with simultaneous transmission of three dengue virus serotypes, and the first with significant numbers of severe and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Overall, 10,659 cases were reported; 1,257 cases were laboratory confirmed as having current or recent dengue infection.(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess benefits, challenges and characteristics of integrating child and maternal health services with immunization programmes. METHODS Literature review using journal databases and grey literature. Papers meeting the inclusion criteria were rated for the quality of methodology and relevant information was systematically abstracted. RESULTS(More)
PURPOSE Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, can have serious impacts on fetal development in the setting of acute maternal primary infection. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) sought to determine current knowledge, practices, opinions, and educational preferences regarding T. gondii infection in pregnancy(More)
Immunization programs frequently rely on household vaccination cards, parental recall, or both to calculate vaccination coverage. This information is used at both the global and national level for planning and allocating performance-based funds. However, the validity of household-derived coverage sources has not yet been widely assessed or discussed. To(More)
To study transmission patterns of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in persons with AIDS, we evaluated P. carinii isolates from patients in five U.S. cities for variation at two independent genetic loci, the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA and dihydropteroate synthase. Fourteen unique multilocus genotypes were observed in 191 isolates that were examined(More)
Neonatal tetanus (NT) is a major cause of mortality in developing countries, with over 400,000 deaths estimated to occur annually. WHO has adopted the goal of eliminating NT worldwide, and a major strategy for its prevention is the administration of at least two properly spaced doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) to women of childbearing age in high-risk areas to(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain estimates on (1) the percentage of children who were up-to-date on the recommended childhood vaccination series, (2) the percentage of children who were age-appropriately immunized, and (3) coverage levels by individual vaccines. DESIGN Vaccination levels were estimated by conducting retrospective immunization coverage surveys of the(More)
BACKGROUND Retrospective immunization coverage surveys conducted during 1991 and 1992 demonstrated that coverage levels for the routine childhood vaccines by 24 months of age in selected urban areas of the United States ranged from 10% to 52%, far below the US Public Health Service goal of 90%. Therefore, appropriate programmatic changes must be identified(More)