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PURPOSE Toxoplasmosis, caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii, can have serious impacts on fetal development in the setting of acute maternal primary infection. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) sought to determine current knowledge, practices, opinions, and educational preferences regarding T. gondii infection in pregnancy(More)
An estimated 400,000 deaths occur annually from neonatal tetanus (NT). In 1989 WHO adopted the goal of eliminating NT as a public health problem worldwide. To achieve this, and to control non-neonatal tetanus (non-NT), WHO recommends that newborns be passively protected at birth by the antepartum administration of at least two doses of tetanus toxoid (TT)(More)
To study transmission patterns of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in persons with AIDS, we evaluated P. carinii isolates from patients in five U.S. cities for variation at two independent genetic loci, the mitochondrial large subunit rRNA and dihydropteroate synthase. Fourteen unique multilocus genotypes were observed in 191 isolates that were examined(More)
BACKGROUND Globally, immunization services have been the center of renewed interest with increased funding to improve services, acceleration of the introduction of new vaccines, and the development of a health systems approach to improve vaccine delivery. Much of the credit for the increased attention is due to the work of the GAVI Alliance and to new(More)
Oral cholera vaccines (OCVs) have been recommended in cholera-endemic settings and preemptively during outbreaks and complex emergencies. However, experience and guidelines for reactive use after an outbreak has started are limited. In 2010, after over a century without epidemic cholera, an outbreak was reported in Haiti after an earthquake. As intensive(More)
The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has made the achievement of high vaccination coverage levels a key goal for the Region of the Ameri-cas. Achieving coverage levels of 95% or higher at the national and local levels is central to PAHO's objectives of eliminating measles and rubella, controlling vaccine-preventable diseases, and maintaining polio(More)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss methods recommended and used by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to monitor the interruption of indigenous measles transmission in the Region of the Americas. The methods used include house-to-house monitoring of vaccination coverage as a supervisory tool during both campaigns and routine vaccination;(More)
BACKGROUND The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund promote integration of maternal and child health (MCH) and immunization services as a strategy to strengthen immunization programs. We updated our previous review of integrated programs and reviewed reports of integration of MCH services with immunization programs at the service(More)
Each year, despite the availability of low-cost interventions such as vaccines that could prevent millions of deaths, nearly 11 million children worldwide die before the age of five. Failure to reach the Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4) for child survival will result in an estimated 40 million children's lives lost by 2015. 4 As nearly a quarter of(More)
The Pan American Health Organization adopted as a goal the interruption of transmission of wild poliovirus from the americas by 1990. Collection and processing of stool specimens from patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) to identify wild poliovirus is critical for monitoring the success of the eradication programme. In the study described, cases of(More)