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The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons have adopted a standardized form for assessment of the shoulder. The form has a patient self-evaluation section and a physician assessment section. The patient self-evaluation section of the form contains visual analog scales for pain and instability and an activities of daily living questionnaire. The activities of(More)
The menisci serve several important biomechanical functions in the knee. They distribute stresses over a broad area of articular cartilage, absorb shocks during dynamic loading, and probably assist in joint lubrication. These functions enhance the ability of articular cartilage to provide a smooth, near-frictionless articulation and to distribute loads(More)
The tensile properties of the inferior glenohumeral ligament have been determined in 16 freshly frozen cadaver shoulders. The inferior glenohumeral ligament was divided into three anatomical regions: a superior band, an anterior axillary pouch, and a posterior axillary pouch. This yielded 48 bone-ligament-bone specimens, which were tested to failure in(More)
This review is aimed at unifying our understanding of cartilage viscoelastic properties in compression, in particular the role of compression-dependent permeability in controlling interstitial fluid flow and its contribution to the observed viscoelastic effects. During the previous decade, it was shown that compression causes the permeability of cartilage(More)
UNLABELLED In a series of 103 specimens from the lateral facet of the human patella, the intrinsic mechanical properties of articular cartilage were measured using a confined compression creep test. By considering the cartilage as a porous, permeable solid filed with fluid, this experimental procedure allowed the determination of the intrinsic equilibrium(More)
We measured the in situ biomechanical properties of knee joint cartilage from five species (bovine, canine, human, monkey, and rabbit) to examine the biomechanical relevance of animal models of human knee joint injuries and osteoarthritis. In situ biphasic creep indentation experiments were performed to simultaneously determine all three intrinsic material(More)
This study addresses the hypothesis that interstitial fluid plays a major role in the load support mechanism of articular cartilage. An asymptotic solution is presented for two contacting biphasic cartilage layers under compression. This solution is valid for identical thin (i.e. epsilon = h'/a'0 << 1), frictionless cartilage layers, and for the 'early'(More)
The intrinsic compressive and tensile properties of normal bovine medial menisci were measured, and the variations in these properties with respect to the structural organization of the tissue and test specimen location were examined. Using a confined compression experiment, the compressive aggregate modulus and permeability of the meniscus were determined.(More)
Swelling of articular cartilage depends on its fixed charge density and distribution, the stiffness of its collagen-proteoglycan matrix, and the ion concentrations in the interstitium. A theory for a tertiary mixture has been developed, including the two fluid-solid phases (biphasic), and an ion phase, representing cation and anion of a single salt, to(More)