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Recent strategies targeting the interaction of the programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) with its receptor, PD-1, resulted in promising activity in early phase clinical trials. In this study, we used various antibodies and in situ mRNA hybridization to measure PD-L1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using a quantitative fluorescence (QIF)(More)
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma has the worst mortality of any solid cancer. In this study, to evaluate the clinical implications of genomic alterations in this tumour type, we perform whole-exome analyses of 24 tumours, targeted genomic analyses of 77 tumours, and use non-invasive approaches to examine tumour-specific mutations in the circulation of these(More)
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, with 1.2 million patients diagnosed annually. In late-stage colorectal cancer, the most commonly used targeted therapies are the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which prevent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation. Recent studies have identified alterations in KRAS and(More)
BACKGROUND Bcl-2 promotes cell survival by inhibiting adapters needed for the activation and cleavage of caspases thus blocking the proteolytic cascade that ultimately dismantles the cell. Bcl-2 has been investigated as a prognostic factor in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with conflicting results. METHODS Here, we quantitatively assessed(More)
INTRODUCTION We assessed expression of p85 and p110α PI3K subunits in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and the association with mTOR expression, and studied effects of targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in NSCLC cell lines. METHODS Using Automated Quantitative Analysis we quantified expression of PI3K subunits in two cohorts of 190 and 168(More)
Challenges in measurement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression have led to conflicting data on its prognostic value and discontinuation of its use for prediction of response. Herein is described a quantitative standardized assay for EGFR and its use in a series of retrospective cohorts of patients with non-small cell lung cancer(More)
Antibodies are among the most frequently used tools in basic science research and in clinical assays, but there are no universally accepted guidelines or standardized methods for determining the validity of these reagents. Furthermore, for commercially available antibodies, it is clear that what is on the label does not necessarily correspond to what is in(More)
BACKGROUND Companion diagnostic tests can depend on accurate measurement of protein expression in tissues. Preanalytic variables, especially cold ischemic time (time from tissue removal to fixation in formalin) can affect the measurement and may cause false-negative results. We examined 23 proteins, including four commonly used breast cancer biomarker(More)
Genome-wide copy number analyses of human cancers identified a frequent 5p13 amplification in several solid tumour types, including lung (56%), ovarian (38%), breast (32%), prostate (37%) and melanoma (32%). Here, using integrative analysis of a genomic profile of the region, we identify a Golgi protein, GOLPH3, as a candidate targeted for amplification.(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the widespread use of immunohistochemistry (IHC), there are no standardization guidelines that control for antibody probe variability. Here we describe the effect of variable antibody reagents in the assessment of cancer-related biomarkers by IHC. METHODS Estrogen receptor (ER), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 1, and human(More)