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The current understanding is that longitudinal muscle contraction begins before and outlasts circular muscle contraction during esophageal peristalsis in normal subjects. The goal of our study was to reassess the relationship between the contractility of two muscle layers using novel ways to look at the muscle contraction. We studied normal subjects using(More)
We hypothesized that electrocardiogram (ECG) spatial phase analysis would define a spectrum of intracardiac organization from atrial fibrillation (AF), nonisthmus-dependent and isthmus-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) to supraventricular tachycardias (SVT), and similarly for ventricular arrhythmias. We analyzed arrhythmia ECGs of 33 patients with isthmus (n =(More)
It has been demonstrated that methacholine (MCh) challenge produces a greater increase in lung resistance in immature than in mature rabbits (R. S. Tepper, X. Shen, E. Bakan, and S. J. Gunst. J. Appl. Physiol. 79: 1190-1198, 1995). To determine whether this maturational difference in the response to MCh was primarily related to changes in airway resistance(More)
We recently found that an orally directed stretch of the esophagus activates a neurally mediated relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Goals of our study were to characterize the neural mechanisms responsible for axial and transverse stretch-activated responses in the LES. LES pressure was monitored in anesthetized and artificially ventilated(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating subclinical lipopolysaccharide (LPS) occurs in health and disease. Ingesting high fatty meals increases LPS that cause metabolic endotoxemia. Subclinical LPS in periodontal disease may impair endothelial function. The heart may be targeted as cardiac cells express TLR4, the LPS receptor. It was hypothesized that recurrent exposure to(More)
BACKGROUND Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) lift seen on high-resolution manometry (HRM) is a possible surrogate marker of the longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus. Recent studies suggest that longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation. AIM Our goal was to determine: (i) the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM(More)
The length at which a muscle operates in vivo (operational length) and the length at which it generates maximal force (optimal length) may be quite different. We studied active and passive length-tension characteristics of external anal sphincter (EAS) in vivo and in vitro to determine the optimal and operational length of rabbit EAS. For the in vitro(More)
Muscularis propria of the esophagus is organized into circular and longitudinal muscle layers. Goal of this review is to summarize the role of longitudinal muscle in physiology and pathophysiology of esophageal sensory and motor function. Simultaneous manometry and ultrasound imaging that measure circular and longitudinal muscle contraction respectively(More)
BACKGROUND Current understanding is that swallow induces simultaneous inhibition of the entire esophagus followed by a sequential wave of contraction (peristalsis). We observed a pattern of luminal distension preceding contraction which suggested that inhibition may also traverses in a peristaltic fashion. Our aim is to determine the relationship between(More)
BACKGROUND Anal sphincter complex consists of anatomically overlapping internal anal sphincter (IAS), external anal sphincter (EAS) and puborectalis muscle (PRM). We determined the functional morphology of anal sphincter muscles using high definition anal manometery (HDAM), three dimensional (3D)-ultrasound (US) and Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. (More)