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We have generated mice that carry a germline mutation in which a large portion of the RAG-2 coding region is deleted. Homozygous mutants are viable but fail to produce mature B or T lymphocytes. Very immature lymphoid cells were present in primary lymphoid organs of mutant animals as defined by surface marker analyses and Abelson murine leukemia virus(More)
Changes in the microbial community structure are observed in individuals with intestinal inflammatory disorders. These changes are often characterized by a depletion of obligate anaerobic bacteria, whereas the relative abundance of facultative anaerobic Enterobacteriaceae increases. The mechanisms by which the host response shapes the microbial community(More)
The expression of several Escherichia coli operons is activated by the Fnr protein during anaerobic growth and is further controlled in response to nitrate and nitrite by the homologous response regulators, NarL and NarP. Among these operons, the napF operon, encoding a periplasmic nitrate reductase, has unique features with respect to its Fnr-, NarL-, and(More)
A quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the pcrA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of perchlorate reductase, detected pcrA genes from perchlorate-reducing bacteria in three different genera and from soil microbial communities. Partial pcrA sequences indicated differences in the composition of perchlorate-reducing bacterial communities following(More)
During the assembly of immunoglobulin and T cell receptor variable region genes from variable (V), diversity (D), and joining (J) segments, the germline-encoded repertoire is further diversified by processes that include the template-independent addition of nucleotides (N regions) at gene segment junctions. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(More)
The bcl-2 proto-oncogene can prevent the death of many cell types. Mice were generated that were chimeric for the homozygous inactivation of bcl-2. Lymphocytes without Bcl-2 differentiated into phenotypically mature cells. However, in vitro, the mature T cells that lacked Bcl-2 had shorter life-spans and increased sensitivity to glucocorticoids and(More)
Hierarchical control ensures that facultative bacteria preferentially use the available respiratory electron acceptor with the most positive standard redox potential. Thus, nitrate is used before other electron acceptors such as fumarate for anaerobic respiration. Nitrate regulation is mediated by the NarX-NarL two-component system, which activates the(More)
The enterobacterium Klebsiella oxytoca uses a variety of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources, including purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. We have identified a 23-gene cluster that encodes the enzymes for utilizing purines as the sole nitrogen source. Growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined(More)
BACKGROUND Mice homozygous for a loss-of-function mutation of the recombination-activating gene-2 (RAG 2), which is required for the rearrangement of antigen receptor genes, do not produce mature B and T lymphocytes. But chimeric mice that result from injection of normal embryonic stem (ES) cells into blastocysts from RAG2-deficient mice develop normal(More)
Regulated transcription termination provides an efficient and responsive means to control gene expression [1]. Intrinsic terminators, which consist of an RNA stem-loop followed by a poly-U tract, catalyze termination by disrupting the RNA polymerase elongation complex [2]. In antitermination, an antiterminator stem-loop is mutually exclusive with the(More)