Valery Grinevich

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The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), which controls childbirth and lactation, receives increasing attention for its effects on social behaviors, but how it reaches central brain regions is still unclear. Here we gained by recombinant viruses selective genetic access to hypothalamic OT neurons to study their connectivity and control their activity by(More)
The mammalian motor cortex typically innervates motor neurons indirectly via oligosynaptic pathways. However, evolution of skilled digit movements in humans, apes, and some monkey species is associated with the emergence of abundant monosynaptic cortical projections onto spinal motor neurons innervating distal limb muscles. Rats perform skilled movements(More)
The neural circuits mediating fear to naturalistic threats are poorly understood. We found that functionally independent populations of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a region that has been implicated in feeding, sex and aggression, are essential for predator and social fear in mice. Our results establish a critical role for VMH in fear and(More)
gamma-Protocadherins (gamma-pcdhs) are type I membrane-spanning glycoproteins, widely expressed in the mammal and required for survival. These cell adhesion molecules are expressed from a complex locus comprising 22 functional variable exons arranged in tandem, each encoding extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular sequence, and three exons for an(More)
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide, which can be seen to be one of the molecules of the decade due to its profound prosocial effects in nonvertebrate and vertebrate species, including humans. Although OT can be detected in various physiological fluids (blood, saliva, urine, cerebrospinal fluid) and brain tissue, it is unclear whether peripheral and central OT(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) is a 38-amino-acid polypeptide, first isolated from hypothalamus, which directly stimulates in vitro the production of cAMP as well as the release of several pituitary hormones, such as growth hormone and luteinizing hormone. In vivo, PACAP has been shown to stimulate ACTH release. The presence of PACAP(More)
The brain-specific immediate early gene Arc/Arg3.1 is induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including sensory and behavior-linked neural activity. Here we report the generation of transgenic mice, termed TgArc/Arg3.1-d4EGFP, expressing a 4-h half-life form of enhanced green fluorescent protein (d4EGFP) under the control of the Arc/Arg3.1 promoter. We(More)
Oxytocin (OT) is a neuropeptide elaborated by the hypothalamic paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic (SON) nuclei. Magnocellular OT neurons of these nuclei innervate numerous forebrain regions and release OT into the blood from the posterior pituitary. The PVN also harbors parvocellular OT cells that project to the brainstem and spinal cord, but their(More)
BACKGROUND Current neurocircuitry models of anxiety disorders posit a lack of inhibitory tone in the amygdala during acquisition of Pavlovian fear responses and deficient encoding of extinction responses in amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex circuits. Competition between these two responses often results in a return of fear, limiting control over anxiety.(More)
The effects of chronic immune challenge on cytokine expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis responses to stress were studied in Wistar rats after administration of increasing doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Repeated LPS (R-LPS) decreased body weight and increased adrenal weight and pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA levels. LPS(More)