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We have recently reported significantly reduced levels of the mRNA of genes critical for the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in the brains of mice and patients with Huntington's disease (HD), which are indicative of a biological dysfunction. We here show that the brains of R6/2 transgenic mice have progressively decreasing levels of the cholesterol(More)
OBJECTIVES Cholesterol has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC) has been suggested as a surrogate marker for brain cholesterol metabolism. This study investigates the relation of 24OHC as well as markers of extracerebral cholesterol homeostasis (lanosterol, lathosterol, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and(More)
Our recent analyses of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway in Huntington's disease (HD) cells, in the R6/2 huntingtin-fragment mouse model of HD as well as in human tissues have provided the first evidence of altered activity of this pathway in genetically identifiable HD samples. Here we report that these changes also occur in the full-length-huntingtin(More)
Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder for which biological indicators of disease progression, or disease stage, would be especially important for therapeutic trials. 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC) is a brain-generated cholesterol metabolite which has been associated with neurodegeneration, and alterations of cholesterol(More)
The side chain oxidized oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24-OH-chol) is formed almost exclusively in the brain, and there is a continuous passage of this oxysterol through the circulation to the liver. 27-Hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-chol) is produced in most organs and is also taken up by the liver. The 27-OH-chol-24-OH-chol ratio is about 0.1 in the brain(More)
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare, inborn error of metabolism characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and by the presence of dystonia, dysarthria, and retinal degeneration. Mutations in pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial coenzyme A biosynthesis, represent the most common(More)
  • Valerio Leoni
  • 2009
Cholesterol plays a crucial structural role in the brain and local synthesis covers almost all the requirements of the brain. To maintain homeostasis, the excess of cholesterol is converted into the more hydrophilic oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol by the neuron-specific enzyme CYP46A1. About 99% of the total excretion of this oxysterol by the brain occurs(More)
OBJECTIVES The concentration in plasma of the brain-specific cholesterol metabolite cerebrosterol has been proposed as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) and other neurological diseases. It is unknown, however, which pathophysiological process in MS best accounts for variations in plasma cerebrosterol. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this(More)
Oxysterols are important for cholesterol homeostasis in the brain and may be affected in neurodegenerative diseases. The levels of the brain-derived oxysterol 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH) have been reported to be markedly reduced in the circulation of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) (Lee et al., Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11 (2009) 407-420). The(More)