Valerio Leoni

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Chlorination by-products (CBPs) in drinking water have been associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, including small for gestational age at term (term-SGA) and preterm delivery. Epidemiological evidence is weakened by a generally inaccurate exposure assessment, often at an ecological level. A case control study with incident cases(More)
In contrast to their parent molecule cholesterol, two of its side-chain oxidized metabolites are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. There is a concentration-driven flux of 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-OHC) from the brain into the circulation, which is of major importance for elimination of excess cholesterol from the brain. The opposite flux of(More)
In the central nervous system cholesterol is involved in membrane structure and function. Since the blood-brain barrier efficiently prevents cholesterol uptake from the circulation, de novo synthesis is responsible for almost all cholesterol present there. In mature brain neurons down regulate their cholesterol synthesis and rely on delivery from ApoE(More)
Mitochondrial disorders are highly heterogeneous conditions characterized by defects of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Pharmacological activation of mitochondrial biogenesis has been proposed as an effective means to correct the biochemical defects and ameliorate the clinical phenotype in these severely disabling, often fatal, disorders. Pathways(More)
A number of sentinels sense incoming herpes simplex virus (HSV) virions and initiate an immediate innate response. The first line of defense at the cell surface is TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), whose signature signaling activity leads to activation of the key transcription factor NF-κB. We report that the HSV pathogen-associated molecular patterns for TLR2(More)
Brain cholesterol, which is synthesized locally, is a major component of myelin and cell membranes and participates in neuronal functions, such as membrane trafficking, signal transduction, neurotransmitter release, and synaptogenesis. Here we show that brain cholesterol biosynthesis is reduced in multiple transgenic and knock-in Huntington's disease (HD)(More)
OBJECTIVES Cholesterol has been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and plasma 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC) has been suggested as a surrogate marker for brain cholesterol metabolism. This study investigates the relation of 24OHC as well as markers of extracerebral cholesterol homeostasis (lanosterol, lathosterol, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C and(More)
Cholesterol is an essential component of both the peripheral and central nervous systems of mammals. Over the last decade, evidence has accumulated that disturbances in cholesterol metabolism are associated with the development of various neurological conditions. In addition to genetically defined defects in cholesterol synthesis, which will be covered in(More)
24S-Hydroxycholesterol (24S-OH-chol) is almost exclusively derived from the brain and the levels of this oxysterol in the circulation may be used as a marker for changes in the turnover of brain cholesterol. In the present study we assayed plasma and cerebrospinal fluid 24S-OH-chol in patients with multiple sclerosis (n = 118) at different stages of the(More)
In a recent publication [Diestel, A., O. Aktas, D. Hackel, I. Hake, S. Meier, C. S. Raine, R. Nitsch, F. Zipp, and O. Ullrich. 2003. Activation of microglial poly (ADP-ribose)-polymerase-1 by cholesterol breakdown products during neuroinflammation: a link between demyelination and neuronal damage. J. Exp. Med. 198: 1729-1740], extremely high levels of(More)