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Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that(More)
Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We(More)
We describe here the ecological and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes are so widespread and important that ecologists should adopt a long-term perspective on the effects of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation of(More)
s Abstract Plant species differ in how they influence many aspects of ecosystem structure and function, including soil characteristics, geomorphology, biogeochem-istry, regional climate, and the activity and distribution of other organisms. Attempts to generalize plant species effects on ecosystems have focused on single traits or suites of traits that(More)
We tested the hypothesis that wild-type p53 activity is required for c-Myc-dependent apoptosis in epithelial cells. Primary baby rat kidney epithelial cell lines were generated by immortalization through the concerted action of c-Myc and a temperature-sensitive (ts) dominant inhibitory mutant allele of p53 (BRK myc/p53ts cells). When shifted to the(More)
Soil aggregation and soil structure are fundamental properties of natural and managed ecosystems. However, most of our knowledge on the role of plant species in soil aggregation is derived from work in agroecosystems or with agriculturally important plants. Here we examined the effects of five plant species on soil aggregate water stability. The five(More)
The adenovirus E1A oncogene products stimulate DNA synthesis and cell proliferation but fail to transform primary baby rat kidney (BRK) cells because of the induction of p53-mediated programmed cell death (apoptosis). Overexpression of dominant mutant p53 (to abrogate wild-type p53 function) or introduction of apoptosis inhibitors, such as adenovirus E1B(More)
Global and regional environmental changes often co-occur, creating complex gradients of disturbance on the landscape. Soil microbial communities are an important component of ecosystem response to environmental change, yet little is known about how microbial structure and function respond to multiple disturbances, or whether multiple environmental changes(More)
Few studies have quantified pathogen impacts to ecosystem processes, despite the fact that pathogens cause or contribute to regional-scale tree mortality. We measured litterfall mass, litterfall chemistry, and soil nitrogen (N) cycling associated with multiple hosts along a gradient of mortality caused by Phytophthora ramorum, the cause of sudden oak death.(More)
Microbial communities can potentially mediate feedbacks between global change and ecosystem function, owing to their sensitivity to environmental change and their control over critical biogeochemical processes. Numerous ecosystem models have been developed to predict global change effects, but most do not consider microbial mechanisms in detail. In this(More)