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Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We(More)
Human alteration of the global environment has triggered the sixth major extinction event in the history of life and caused widespread changes in the global distribution of organisms. These changes in biodiversity alter ecosystem processes and change the resilience of ecosystems to environmental change. This has profound consequences for services that(More)
We describe here the ecological and evolutionary processes that modulate the effects of invasive species over time, and argue that such processes are so widespread and important that ecologists should adopt a long-term perspective on the effects of invasive species. These processes (including evolution, shifts in species composition, accumulation of(More)
The adenovirus E1A oncogene products stimulate DNA synthesis and cell proliferation but fail to transform primary baby rat kidney (BRK) cells because of the induction of p53-mediated programmed cell death (apoptosis). Overexpression of dominant mutant p53 (to abrogate wild-type p53 function) or introduction of apoptosis inhibitors, such as adenovirus E1B(More)
s Abstract Plant species differ in how they influence many aspects of ecosystem structure and function, including soil characteristics, geomorphology, biogeochem-istry, regional climate, and the activity and distribution of other organisms. Attempts to generalize plant species effects on ecosystems have focused on single traits or suites of traits that(More)
Microbial communities can potentially mediate feedbacks between global change and ecosystem function, owing to their sensitivity to environmental change and their control over critical biogeochemical processes. Numerous ecosystem models have been developed to predict global change effects, but most do not consider microbial mechanisms in detail. In this(More)
I n the past few decades, there has been a growing call for scientists to continue traditional productive research careers but to also actively engage in education, public outreach, and policy development. This shift has been motivated by the need to reach and rely on an increasingly large and diverse educated public, by the emergence of scientific issues(More)
Current knowledge of plant-soil feedback is based largely on single end point studies with soils conditioned by monocultures, but accounting for variability in the ecological impacts of feedback effects may require understanding how feedback develops over time and in multi-species plant communities. To examine temporal development and additivity of(More)
Global and regional environmental changes often co-occur, creating complex gradients of disturbance on the landscape. Soil microbial communities are an important component of ecosystem response to environmental change, yet little is known about how microbial structure and function respond to multiple disturbances, or whether multiple environmental changes(More)