Valerie S. Folkes

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A field experiment investigated the impact of two external reference points under the seller's control on the final price of an auction. When an item's seller specified a high external reference price (a reserve price), the final bid was greater than when the seller specified a low external reference price (a minimum bid). When the seller provided both high(More)
A series of studies show converging evidence of a positivity effect in consumers' inferences about service providers. When the consumer has little experience with a service, positive information about a single employee leads to inferences that the firm's other service providers are similarly positive to a greater extent than negative information leads to(More)
We conducted four studies that pertained to excuses given for a broken social contract. In an initial field investigation, participants recalled occasions in which they had given true and false reasons for not fulfilling a social obligation. Communicated reasons tended to be external to the person, uncontrollable, and unintentional (e.g., "My car broke(More)
We introduce the incivility construct and demonstrate that witnessing an incident of employee-employee incivility causes consumers to make negative generalizations about (a) others who work for the firm, (b) the firm as a whole, and (c) future encounters with the firm, inferences that go well beyond the incivility incident. We demonstrate the process by(More)
Critics within the consumer behavior field have consistently debated three fundamental issues about the field's defining properties and goals: (1) whether consumer behavior should be an independent discipline, (2) what is (and is not) consumer behavior, and (3) whether our field should be interdisciplinary. Taking the perspective of the sociology of science(More)
We compared effects of information about a stereotypical service provider with that about a counterstereotypical service provider on inferences about the similarity of employees within the firm and the firm's similarity to other firms (across-brand differentiation). Our three experiments varied the provider's gender so that it was either stereotypical or(More)
Four studies examined whether verbal behavior is mindful (cognitive) or mindless (automatic). All used Langer, Blank, and Chanowitz's (1978) experimental paradigm. Experimenters approached subjects at copying machines and asked to use it first. Their requests varied in the amount and kind of information given. Study 1 found less compliance when(More)
This research shows that the perceived difficulty of manufacturing a product influences consumers' perceptions of the firm's other products. In three experiments (with 152 participants in Study 1, 86 in Study 2, and 91 in Study 3), participants received information about the quality of a firm's product and then inferred the quality of another product from(More)