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Uneven skin pigmentation is a significant cosmetic concern, and the identification of topically applicable molecules to address this issue is of general interest. We report that the tetrapeptide PKEK (Pro-Lys-Glu-Lys) can exert skin whitening effects based on one in vitro and four double-blinded vehicle-controlled in vivo studies. (i) Treatment of human(More)
BACKGROUND Pentacyclic triterpenoids improve epidermal barrier function and induce collagen production. Here, their effects on cutaneous aging by means of objective instrumental measurements were elucidated. METHODS Reconstituted human epidermis, cultivated keratinocytes and fibroblasts were incubated with Terminalia arjuna triterpenes (T. arjuna bark(More)
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