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We describe the 2.6-A crystal structure of human G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-6, a key regulator of dopaminergic signaling and lymphocyte chemotaxis. GRK6 is a member of the GRK4 subfamily of GRKs, which is represented in most, if not all, metazoans. Comparison of GRK6 with GRK2 confirms that the catalytic core of all GRKs consists of intimately(More)
Most normal diploid human cells do not express telomerase activity and are unable to maintain telomere length with ongoing cell divisions. We show that the length of the single-stranded G-rich telomeric 3'-overhang is proportional to the rate of shortening in four human cell types that exhibit different rates of telomere shortening in culture. These results(More)
Telomeres protect the ends of linear chromosomes from degradation and abnormal recombination events, and in vertebrates may be important in cellular senescence and cancer. However, very little is known about the structure of human telomeres. In this report we purify telomeres and analyze their termini. We show that following replication the daughter(More)
The maintenance of chromosome termini, or telomeres, requires the action of the enzyme telomerase, as conventional DNA polymerases cannot fully replicate the ends of linear molecules. Telomerase is expressed and telomere length is maintained in human germ cells and the great majority of primary human tumours. However, telomerase is not detectable in most(More)
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) plays a key role in the desensitization of G protein-coupled receptor signaling by phosphorylating activated heptahelical receptors and by sequestering heterotrimeric G proteins. We report the atomic structure of GRK2 in complex with Galphaq and Gbetagamma, in which the activated Galpha subunit of Gq is fully(More)
Telomeres in yeast are late replicating. Genes placed next to telomeres in yeast can be repressed (telomere positional effects), leading to the hypothesis that telomeres may be heterochromatic and may control the expression of subtelomeric genes. In addition, yeast telomeres are processed to have a transient long overhang at the end of S phase. The(More)
An upstream control region in the long terminal repeat (LTR) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) includes a potential negative regulatory element (NRE1). Cotransfecting multimers of a sequence spanning this element with an LTR-CAT construct produced an increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells,(More)
The enzyme phospholipase C-β (PLCβ) is a crucial regulator of intracellular calcium levels whose activity is controlled by heptahelical receptors that couple to members of the Gq family of heterotrimeric G proteins. We have determined atomic structures of two invertebrate homologs of PLCβ (PLC21) from cephalopod retina and identified a helix from the(More)
Most normal human diploid cells have no detectable telomerase; however, expression of the catalytic subunit of telomerase is sufficient to induce telomerase activity and, in many cases, will bypass normal senescence. We and others have previously demonstrated in vitro assembly of active telomerase by combining the purified RNA component with the reverse(More)
The human telomerase RNA component (hTR) is present in normal somatic cells at lower levels than in cancer-derived cell lines. To understand the mechanisms regulating hTR levels in different cell types, we have compared the steady-state hTR levels in three groups of cells: (i) normal telomerase-negative human diploid cells; (ii) normal cells transfected(More)