Valerie M. Beck

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CONTEXT Working memory deficits are considered a core feature of schizophrenia. Several recent integrative articles have offered mechanistic computational and neurobiological models of the origins of this cognitive deficit. OBJECTIVE To test predictions of these models using a new experimental paradigm from the basic science literature that makes it(More)
BACKGROUND Prior demonstrations of impaired attentional control in schizophrenia focused on conditions in which top-down control is needed to overcome prepotent response tendencies. Attentional control over stimulus processing has received little investigation. Here, we test whether attentional control is impaired during working memory encoding when salient(More)
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) exhibit signs of reduced working memory (WM) capacity. However, this may reflect an impairment in managing its content, e.g. preventing irrelevant information from taking up available storage space, rather than a true capacity reduction. We tested the ability to eliminate and update WM content in 38 PSZ and 30 healthy control(More)
Working memory representations play a key role in controlling attention by making it possible to shift attention to task-relevant objects. Visual working memory has a capacity of three to four objects, but recent studies suggest that only one representation can guide attention at a given moment. We directly tested this proposal by monitoring eye movements(More)
Previous research has demonstrated deficits in preresponse motor activity in schizophrenia, as evidenced by a reduced lateralized readiness potential (LRP). The LRP deficit could be due to increased activation of the incorrect response (e.g., failure to suppress competition) or to reduced activation of the correct response (e.g., a low-level impairment in(More)
Recent research suggests that processing resources are focused more narrowly but more intensely in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) than in healthy control subjects (HCS), possibly reflecting local cortical circuit abnormalities. This hyperfocusing hypothesis leads to the counterintuitive prediction that, although PSZ cannot store as much information in(More)
Theories of attention and visual search explain how attention is guided toward objects with known target features. But can attention be directed away from objects with a feature known to be associated only with distractors? Most studies have found that the demand to maintain the to-be-avoided feature in visual working memory biases attention toward matching(More)
Efficient visual search requires that attention is guided strategically to relevant objects, and most theories of visual search implement this function by means of a target template maintained in visual working memory (VWM). However, there is currently debate over the architecture of VWM-based attentional guidance. We contrasted a single-item-template(More)
Many activities depend on directing attention to several goal-relevant objects (the butter, the knife, etc.), requiring flexible configuration of attentional guidance. Visual working memory (VWM) fulfills this role by maintaining features of the current target object. Although this basic framework is well accepted, there is debate over the architecture of(More)
The content of visual working memory (VWM) guides attention, but whether this interaction is limited to a single VWM representation or functional for multiple VWM representations is under debate. To test this issue, we developed a gaze-contingent search paradigm to directly manipulate selection history and examine the competition between multiple(More)