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PURPOSE The goal of this project was to compare MRI measures of hippocampal, entorhinal cortex (ERC), and whole brain longitudinal change in cognitively normal elderly controls (C), non-demented subjects with cognitive impairment (CI), and demented (D) subjects. METHODS 16 C, 6 CI, and 7 D subjects of comparable age were studied with MRI twice, at least 1(More)
Brain atrophy associated with chronic alcohol consumption is partially reversible after cessation of drinking. Recovering alcoholics (RA, 45+/-8 years) were studied with MRI within 1 week of entering treatment, with follow-up at 8 months. Light drinkers (LD) were studied with MRI twice 1 year apart. For each participant, deformation maps of baseline(More)
BACKGROUND Previous MRI studies of bipolar disorder have failed to consistently demonstrate cortical gray or cerebral white matter tissue loss, as well as sulcal or ventricular enlargement. The inconsistencies are most likely due to the clinical and gender heterogeneity of the study populations as well as the different MRI acquisition and processing(More)
BACKGROUND The cause of dementia in subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) is controversial. OBJECTIVES To determine whether cognitive impairment in SIVD 1) correlates with measures of ischemic brain injury or brain atrophy, and/or 2) is due to concomitant AD. METHODS Volumetric MRI of the brain was performed in 1) elderly subjects with lacunes(More)
BACKGROUND Most studies of the impact of alcohol dependence on the brain have examined individuals in treatment. Such samples represent a small proportion of alcoholics in the general population. Such samples may embody a bias (Berkson's fallacy) if the association between variables (for example, alcoholism and cortical gray matter loss) differs between the(More)
The overall goal was to identify patterns of brain atrophy associated with cognitive impairment and future cognitive decline in non-demented elders. Seventy-one participants were studied with structural MRI and neuropsychological testing at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Deformation-based morphometry was used to examine the relationship between regional(More)
Treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) has greatly reduced the incidence of dementia. The goal of this longitudinal study was to determine if there are ongoing macrostructural brain changes in human immunodeficiency virus-positive (HIV + ) individuals treated with ART. To quantify brain structure, three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance(More)
Suppression of auditory P50 evoked potential amplitude to the second of a pair of clicks is potentially important in psychiatric research because it has been shown to be abnormal in both schizophrenics and their relatives. However, its clinical utility using the standard single-channel electroencephalographic (EEG) peak picking methodology is under question(More)
Most prior studies of the effects of excessive alcohol intake on the adolescent brain examined alcohol-use-dependent samples with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. In the Cape Town region, we identified a sizeable cohort of adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) without externalizing or other psychiatric disorders. We examined brain(More)
The amplitude and suppression of the auditory P50 event-related potential may be useful for studying schizophrenia and drug abuse; however, the low reliability of the P50 suppression measure limits its value for correlation with clinical measures. Reliability can be increased either by improving measurement methods or by reducing or eliminating sources of(More)