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Determining malaria vector species and age is crucial to measure malaria risk. Although different in ecology and susceptibility to control, the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis are morphologically similar and can be differentiated only by molecular techniques. Furthermore, few reliable methods exist to estimate the(More)
Increases in the coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) have significantly reduced the abundance of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto in several African settings, leaving its more zoophagic sibling species Anopheles arabiensis as the primary vector. This study investigated the impact of livestock ownership at the household level on the ecology and(More)
BACKGROUND Successful malaria vector control depends on understanding behavioural interactions between mosquitoes and humans, which are highly setting-specific and may have characteristic features in urban environments. Here mosquito biting patterns in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania are examined and the protection against exposure to malaria transmission that is(More)
BACKGROUND Malaria control in Africa is most tractable in urban settlements yet most research has focused on rural settings. Elimination of malaria transmission from urban areas may require larval control strategies that complement adult mosquito control using insecticide-treated nets or houses, particularly where vectors feed outdoors. METHODS AND(More)
BACKGROUND Cost-sharing schemes incorporating modest targeted subsidies have promoted insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) for malaria prevention in the Kilombero Valley, southern Tanzania, since 1996. Here we evaluate resulting changes in bednet coverage and malaria transmission. METHODS Bednets were sold through local agents at fixed prices representing a(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been successfully used on fresh and RNAlater®-preserved members of the Anopheles gambiae complex to identify sibling species and age. No preservation methods other than using RNAlater® have been tested to preserve mosquitoes for species identification using NIRS. However, RNAlater® is not the most practical preservative(More)
Determining the age of malaria vectors is essential for evaluating the impact of interventions that reduce the survival of wild mosquito populations and for estimating changes in vectorial capacity. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-destructive method that has been used to determine the age and species of Anopheles gambiae s.l. by(More)
In spite of massive progress in the control of African malaria since the turn of the century, there is a clear and recognized need for additional tools beyond long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, to progress towards elimination. Moreover, widespread and intensifying insecticide resistance(More)
Malaria elimination is unlikely to occur if vector control efforts focus entirely on transmission occurring indoors without addressing vectors that bite outdoors and outside sleeping hours. Additional control tools such as spatial repellents may provide the personal protection required to fill this gap. However, since repellents do not kill mosquitoes it is(More)
Sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum populations from Colombia (N = 38) and Tanzania (N = 45) to the newly developed, fully synthetic peroxide OZ277 was investigated using a standard isotopic microtest. OZ277 showed excellent activity against chloroquine-resistant isolates in Colombia with median IC(50) [range] values of 2.5 ng/mL [0.34-8] (4.4 nM [0.6-14])(More)
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