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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are new materials of emerging technological importance. As SWCNT are introduced into the life cycle of commercial products, their effects on human health and environment should be addressed. We demonstrated that pharyngeal aspiration of SWCNT elicited unusual pulmonary effects in C57BL/6 mice that combined a robust but(More)
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal(More)
Recognition of injured mitochondria for degradation by macroautophagy is essential for cellular health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cardiolipin is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid. We found that rotenone, staurosporine, 6-hydroxydopamine and other pro-mitophagy stimuli caused externalization of cardiolipin to the mitochondrial(More)
α-Synuclein is one of the most abundant proteins in presynaptic terminals. Normal expression of α-synuclein is essential for neuronal survival and it prevents the initiation of apoptosis in neurons through covalent cross-linking of cytochrome c released from mitochondria. Exocytosis of α-synuclein occurs with neuronal mitochondrial dysfunction, making its(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT), with their applications in industry and medicine, may lead to new risks to human health. CNT induce a robust pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in rodents. Realistic exposures to CNT may occur in conjunction with other pathogenic impacts (microbial infections) and trigger enhanced responses. We evaluated interactions between(More)
Oxidative stress may contribute to many pathophysiologic changes that occur after traumatic brain injury. In the current study, contemporary methods of detecting oxidative stress were used in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The level of the stable product derived from peroxidation of arachidonyl residues in phospholipids, 8-epi-prostaglandin(More)
Damage of presynaptic mitochondria could result in release of proapoptotic factors that threaten the integrity of the entire neuron. We discovered that alpha-synuclein (Syn) forms a triple complex with anionic lipids (such as cardiolipin) and cytochrome c, which exerts a peroxidase activity. The latter catalyzes covalent hetero-oligomerization of Syn with(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs), a type of professional antigen-presenting cells, are responsible for initiation and maintenance of immune responses. Here we report that a substantial proportion of DCs in tumor-bearing mice and people with cancer have high amounts of triglycerides as compared with DCs from tumor-free mice and healthy individuals. In our studies,(More)
The molecular diversity of phospholipids is essential for their structural and signaling functions in cell membranes. In the current work, we present, the results of mass spectrometric characterization of individual molecular species in major classes of phospholipids -- phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), phosphatidylserine(More)
A number of commercially available metal/metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) such as superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPION) are utilized by the medical field for a wide variety of applications. These NPs may able to induce dermal toxicity via their physical nature and reactive surface properties. We hypothesize that SPION may be toxic to skin via the ability of(More)