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Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are new materials of emerging technological importance. As SWCNT are introduced into the life cycle of commercial products, their effects on human health and environment should be addressed. We demonstrated that pharyngeal aspiration of SWCNT elicited unusual pulmonary effects in C57BL/6 mice that combined a robust but(More)
Oxidative stress may contribute to many pathophysiologic changes that occur after traumatic brain injury. In the current study, contemporary methods of detecting oxidative stress were used in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The level of the stable product derived from peroxidation of arachidonyl residues in phospholipids, 8-epi-prostaglandin(More)
Programmed death (apoptosis) is turned on in damaged or unwanted cells to secure their clean and safe self-elimination. The initial apoptotic events are coordinated in mitochondria, whereby several proapoptotic factors, including cytochrome c, are released into the cytosol to trigger caspase cascades. The release mechanisms include interactions of(More)
Recognition of injured mitochondria for degradation by macroautophagy is essential for cellular health, but the mechanisms remain poorly understood. Cardiolipin is an inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid. We found that rotenone, staurosporine, 6-hydroxydopamine and other pro-mitophagy stimuli caused externalization of cardiolipin to the mitochondrial(More)
Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the signature insult in combat casualty care. Survival with neurological damage from otherwise lethal blast exposures has become possible with body armor use. We characterized the neuropathologic alterations produced by a single blast exposure in rats using a helium-driven shock tube to generate a nominal(More)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), nano-cylinders with an extremely small diameter (1-2 nm) and high aspect ratio, have unique physico-chemical, electronic and mechanical properties and may exhibit unusual interactions with cells and tissues, thus necessitating studies of their toxicity and health effects. Manufactured SWCNT usually contain significant(More)
Recently, phospholipid peroxidation products gained a reputation as key regulatory molecules and participants in oxidative signaling pathways. During apoptosis, a mitochondria-specific phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), interacts with cytochrome c (cyt c) to form a peroxidase complex that catalyzes CL oxidation; this process plays a pivotal role in the(More)
Etoposide is an effective anticancer agent whose antitumor activity is associated with its phenolic E-ring, which can participate in intracellular redox cycling reactions. Myeloperoxidase (MPO)-catalyzed one-electron oxidation of the etoposide phenolic ring and/or interaction of this phenolic moiety with reactive radicals yields its phenoxyl radical, whose(More)
Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) have been introduced into a large number of new technologies and consumer products. The combination of their exceptional features with very broad applications raised concerns regarding their potential health effects. The prime target for SWCNT toxicity is believed to be the lung where exposure may occur through(More)
Bcl-2 has been associated with both oxidative and antioxidative effects in vivo. Moreover, despite evidence that Bcl-2 is antiapoptotic by virtue of its effect on reactive oxygen species and their scavengers, Bcl-2 exerts its antiapoptotic effects even under anaerobic conditions. The reasons for the variable relationship between Bcl-2 and reactive oxygen(More)