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Sonic hedgehog is a secreted factor regulating patterning of the anterior-posterior axis in the developing limb. The signaling pathway mediating the transduction of the signal is still poorly understood. In Drosophila several genes are known to act downstream of hedgehog, the fly homolog of Sonic hedgehog. An important gene epistatic to hedgehog is cubitus(More)
Hedgehog genes have been implicated in inductive signaling during development in a variety of organisms. A key element of the hedgehog signaling system is encoded by the gene patched. In Drosophila hedgehog regulates gene expression by antagonizing the action of patched. In addition, patched is itself a transcriptional target of hedgehog signaling. We have(More)
The protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is essential for a variety of patterning events during development. It is the signal from the notochord that induces ventral cell fate in the neural tube and somites, and is the polarizing signal for patterning of the anterior-posterior axis of the developing limb bud. Because of these and other inductive functions of Shh,(More)
Ventral cell fates in the central nervous system are induced by Sonic hedgehog, a homolog of hedgehog, a secreted Drosophila protein. In the central nervous system, Sonic hedgehog has been identified as the signal inducing floor plate, motor neurons, and dopaminergic neurons. Sonic hedgehog is also involved in the induction of ventral cell type in the(More)
The hedgehog genes encode signaling molecules that play a role in regulating embryonic morphogenesis. We have cloned and sequenced human cDNA copies of two of these genes, SHH and IHH. The SHH clone includes the full coding sequence and encodes a protein 92.4% identical to its murine homologue. The IHH clone is 89% complete and encodes a protein 94.6%(More)
Genome-wide expression analyses have a crucial role in functional genomics. High resolution methods, such as RNA in situ hybridization provide an accurate description of the spatiotemporal distribution of transcripts as well as a three-dimensional 'in vivo' gene expression overview. We set out to analyse systematically the expression patterns of genes from(More)
The members of the T-box gene family share a highly conserved DNA binding domain named the T-domain, and important developmental functions. Here we report the cloning of chicken Tbr1 and of murine and chicken Tbr2 (orthologs of the Xenopus eomesodermin gene), the mapping of the murine Tbr2 to chromosome 9, and their pattern of expression during mouse and(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis in retinitis pigmentosa, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, are still elusive, and this fact hampers the development of a cure for this blinding disease. We show that two apoptotic pathways, one from the mitochondrion and one from the endoplasmic reticulum, are coactivated during the degenerative process in an(More)
Vax2 is a homeobox gene whose expression is confined to the ventral region of the prospective neural retina. Overexpression of this gene at early stages of development in Xenopus and in chicken embryos determines a ventralisation of the retina, thus suggesting its role in the molecular pathway that underlies eye development. We describe the generation and(More)
Co-activation and cross-talk of different apoptotic pathways have been described in several systems however, the differential contributions of the different executors have not been well characterized. Here we report the co-translocation to the nucleus of caspase-12 and AIF in response to two endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses: protein misfolding and(More)