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Hedgehog genes have been implicated in inductive signaling during development in a variety of organisms. A key element of the hedgehog signaling system is encoded by the gene patched. In Drosophila hedgehog regulates gene expression by antagonizing the action of patched. In addition, patched is itself a transcriptional target of hedgehog signaling. We have(More)
The protein Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is essential for a variety of patterning events during development. It is the signal from the notochord that induces ventral cell fate in the neural tube and somites, and is the polarizing signal for patterning of the anterior-posterior axis of the developing limb bud. Because of these and other inductive functions of Shh,(More)
Ventral cell fates in the central nervous system are induced by Sonic hedgehog, a homolog of hedgehog, a secreted Drosophila protein. In the central nervous system, Sonic hedgehog has been identified as the signal inducing floor plate, motor neurons, and dopaminergic neurons. Sonic hedgehog is also involved in the induction of ventral cell type in the(More)
The members of the T-box gene family share a highly conserved DNA binding domain named the T-domain, and important developmental functions. Here we report the cloning of chicken Tbr1 and of murine and chicken Tbr2 (orthologs of the Xenopus eomesodermin gene), the mapping of the murine Tbr2 to chromosome 9, and their pattern of expression during mouse and(More)
Genome-wide expression analyses have a crucial role in functional genomics. High resolution methods, such as RNA in situ hybridization provide an accurate description of the spatiotemporal distribution of transcripts as well as a three-dimensional 'in vivo' gene expression overview. We set out to analyse systematically the expression patterns of genes from(More)
Loss of substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons, which develop from the ventral region of the midbrain, is associated with Parkinson's disease. During embryogenesis, induction of these and other ventral neurons is influenced by interactions with the induction of mesoderm of the notochord and the floor plate, which lies at the ventral midline of the developing(More)
Vax2 is a homeobox gene whose expression is confined to the ventral region of the prospective neural retina. Overexpression of this gene at early stages of development in Xenopus and in chicken embryos determines a ventralisation of the retina, thus suggesting its role in the molecular pathway that underlies eye development. We describe the generation and(More)
PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by binding to target sites in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNAs. Although they have been found to regulate developmental and physiological processes in several organs and tissues, their role in the eye(More)
PURPOSE Mutations in the OA1 gene cause ocular albinism type 1 (OA1), an X-linked form of albinism affecting only the eye, with skin pigmentation appearing normal. To better understand the pathogenesis of this disease the time of onset and the pattern of expression of the mouse homolog of the OA1 gene were monitored during eye development. The localization(More)
OA1 (GPR143; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor), the protein product of the ocular albinism type 1 gene, encodes a pigment-cell-specific GPCR that localizes intracellularly to melanosomes. OA1 mutations result in ocular albinism due to alterations in melanosome formation, suggesting that OA1 is a key player in the biogenesis of melanosomes. To address the(More)