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Amyloid deposits in the islets of Langerhans occur in association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans and cats and consist of a 37-amino-acid polypeptide known as islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP). In order to find an explanation for the situation that islet amyloid (IA) does not develop in common rodent species, we have deduced the amino acid(More)
We have cloned and sequenced a human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) cDNA. A secretory 89 amino acid IAPP protein precursor is predicted from which the 37 amino acid IAPP molecule is formed by amino- and carboxyterminal proteolytic processing. The IAPP peptide is 43-46% identical in amino acid sequence to the two members of the calcitonin gene-related(More)
The differences between individual cells can have profound functional consequences, in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Recently developed single-cell mRNA-sequencing methods enable unbiased, high-throughput, and high-resolution transcriptomic analysis of individual cells. This provides an additional dimension to transcriptomic information(More)
The discovery that mast cells are a potential source of cytokines has suggested new ways in which mast cells can act in immunological and inflammatory responses. In this study we have used the HMC-1 cell line as a model for human mast cells to study the constitutive and inducible mRNA expression of interleukins, colony-stimulating factors, interferons,(More)
Using a polymerase chain reaction approach, we have analyzed the alternative usage of the platelet-derived growth factor A-chain exon 6 in mRNA from various cell types. The results show that this sequence is utilized in a small fraction of the mRNA molecules in normal as well as transformed cells and that this phenomenon is conserved among mammalian species.
Differentiation of naïve CD4+ T cells into functionally distinct T helper subsets is crucial for the orchestration of immune responses. Due to extensive heterogeneity and multiple overlapping transcriptional programs in differentiating T cell populations, this process has remained a challenge for systematic dissection in vivo. By using single-cell(More)
The transcriptional programs that govern hematopoiesis have been investigated primarily by population-level analysis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which cannot reveal the continuous nature of the differentiation process. Here we applied single-cell RNA-sequencing to a population of hematopoietic cells in zebrafish as they undergo thrombocyte(More)
CD4+ T cells are key regulators of the adaptive immune system and can be divided into T helper (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. During an immune response Th cells mature from a naive state into one of several effector subtypes that exhibit distinct functions. The transcriptional mechanisms that underlie the specific functional identity of CD4+ T(More)
Differentiation of lymphocytes is frequently accompanied by cell cycle changes, interplay that is of central importance for immunity but is still incompletely understood. Here, we interrogate and quantitatively model how proliferation is linked to differentiation in CD4+ T cells. We perform ex vivo single-cell RNA-sequencing of CD4+ T cells during a mouse(More)
Mouse embryonic stem cells are dynamic and heterogeneous. For example, rare cells cycle through a state characterized by decondensed chromatin and expression of transcripts, including the Zscan4 cluster and MERVL endogenous retrovirus, which are usually restricted to preimplantation embryos. Here, we further characterize the dynamics and consequences of(More)