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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in corticostriatal long-term depression induction in a model of levodopa-induced dyskinesia in experimental parkinsonism. Moreover, we have also analysed the possibility of targeting striatal phosphodiesterases to reduce levodopa-induced(More)
Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are divided into two subpopulations exerting distinct effects on motor behavior. Transgenic mice carrying bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) able to confer cell type-specific expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) for dopamine (DA) receptors have been developed to characterize differences between(More)
Although patients with Parkinson's disease show impairments in cognitive performance even at the early stage of the disease, the synaptic mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in this pathology are unknown. Hippocampal long-term potentiation represents the major experimental model for the synaptic changes underlying learning and memory and is(More)
Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias represent the main side effect of the therapeutic strategy clinically used in Parkinson's disease (PD) treatment. The first beneficial "honeymoon" phase of L-DOPA therapy is followed by a phase of deterioration in which L-DOPA administration causes motor fluctuations in the drug efficacy ("on-off" state) and(More)
Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are divided into two subpopulations exerting distinct effects on motor behavior. Trans-genic mice carrying bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) able to confer cell type-specific expression of enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) for dopamine (DA) receptors have been developed to characterize differences between(More)
Coupling of spindle orientation to cellular polarity is a prerequisite for epithelial asymmetric cell divisions. The current view posits that the adaptor Inscuteable (Insc) bridges between Par3 and the spindle tethering machinery assembled on NuMALGNGαi(GDP), thus triggering apico-basal spindle orientation. The crystal structure of the Drosophila ortholog(More)
BACKGROUND Bidirectional long-term plasticity at the corticostriatal synapse has been proposed as a central cellular mechanism governing dopamine-mediated behavioral adaptations in the basal ganglia system. Balanced activity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the direct and the indirect pathways is essential for normal striatal function. This balance is(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in humans increases levels of dopamine (DA) in the vicinity of highly active corticostriatal terminals suggesting its use to alleviate symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the effects of rTMS on corticostriatal plasticity have not been explored. Here we show that a single-session of cortical rTMS(More)
Dopamine replacement with levodopa (L-DOPA) represents the mainstay of Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. Nevertheless, this well established therapeutic intervention loses efficacy with the progression of the disease and patients develop invalidating side effects, known in their complex as L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID). Unfortunately, existing therapies(More)
In Parkinson's disease (PD), alteration of dopamine- (DA-) dependent striatal functions and pulsatile stimulation of DA receptors caused by the discontinuous administration of levodopa (L-DOPA) lead to a complex cascade of events affecting the postsynaptic striatal neurons that might account for the appearance of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID).(More)