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Synaptic plasticity involves protein phosphorylation cascades that alter the density of AMPA-type glutamate receptors at excitatory synapses; however, the crucial phosphorylated substrates remain uncertain. Here, we show that the AMPA receptor-associated protein stargazin is quantitatively phosphorylated and that stargazin phosphorylation promotes synaptic(More)
Previous studies have shown that overexpression of the protein PSD-95 (postsynaptic density-95) selectively enhances AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal pyramidal cells. To determine whether this effect is related to synaptic plasticity at these synapses, we examined whether PSD-95 expression mimics long-term potentiation (LTP), and(More)
Synaptic inhibition by GABA(A) and glycine receptors, which are ligand-gated anion channels, depends on the electrochemical potential for chloride. Several potassium-chloride cotransporters can lower the intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i), including the neuronal isoform KCC2. We show that KCC2 knockout mice died immediately after birth due to(More)
Trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) to and from synapses controls the strength of excitatory synaptic transmission. However, proteins that cluster AMPA-Rs at synapses remain poorly understood. Here we show that PSD-95-like membrane-associated guanylate kinases (PSD-MAGUKs) mediate this synaptic targeting, and we uncover a remarkable functional(More)
Fast synaptic inhibition in the adult central nervous system (CNS) is mediated by GABA and glycine. During early development GABA acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter, which is deemed to be important for the maturation of the CNS. During development GABAergic responses undergo a switch from excitatory to inhibitory. This switch is correlated with(More)
Neurons in the nervous system can change their functional properties over time. At present, there are no techniques that allow reliable monitoring of changes within identified neurons over repeated experimental sessions. We increased the signal strength of troponin C-based calcium biosensors in the low-calcium regime by mutagenesis and domain rearrangement(More)
A high intracellular chloride concentration in immature neurons leads to a depolarizing action of GABA that is thought to shape the developing neuronal network. We show that GABA-triggered depolarization and Ca2+ transients were attenuated in mice deficient for the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC1. Correlated Ca2+ transients and giant depolarizing potentials(More)
AMPA receptors mediate the majority of fast synaptic transmission and underlie several forms of synaptic plasticity. AMPARs also have an important role in several neuronal pathologies. Therefore, studying the structure and function of these receptors is important for understanding general mechanisms of synaptic transmission as well as for the development of(More)
Synapses are asymmetric cell junctions with precisely juxtaposed presynaptic and postsynaptic sides. Transsynaptic adhesion complexes are thought to organize developing synapses. The molecular composition of these complexes, however, remains incompletely understood, precluding us from understanding how adhesion across the synaptic cleft guides synapse(More)
Long-lasting changes in synaptic function are thought to be the cellular basis for learning and memory and for activity-dependent plasticity during development. Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are two opposing forms of synaptic plasticity that help fine tune neural connections and possibly serve to store information in the brain.(More)