Valentin Borshchevskiy

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Recently, the first known light-driven sodium pumps, from the microbial rhodopsin family, were discovered. We have solved the structure of one of them, Krokinobacter eikastus rhodopsin 2 (KR2), in the monomeric blue state and in two pentameric red states, at resolutions of 1.45 Å and 2.2 and 2.8 Å, respectively. The structures reveal the ion-translocation(More)
The complex of sensory rhodopsin II (NpSRII) with its cognate transducer (NpHtrII) mediates negative phototaxis in halobacteria Natronomonas pharaonis. Upon light activation NpSRII triggers, by means of NpHtrII, a signal transduction chain homologous to the two component system in eubacterial chemotaxis. Here we report on the crystal structure of the ground(More)
The molecular mechanism of transmembrane signal transduction is still a pertinent question in cellular biology. Generally, a receptor can transfer an external signal via its cytoplasmic surface, as found for G-protein-coupled receptors such as rhodopsin, or via the membrane domain, such as that in sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) in complex with its transducer,(More)
Phospholipids have major roles in the structure and function of all cell membranes. Most integral membrane proteins from the large CDP-alcohol phosphatidyltransferase family are involved in phospholipid biosynthesis across the three domains of life. They share a conserved sequence pattern and catalyse the displacement of CMP from a CDP-alcohol by a second(More)
Twinning is one of the most common crystal-growth defects in protein crystallography. There are neither efficient rational approaches for the growth of nontwinned protein crystals nor are there examples of systematic studies of the dependence of the twinning-ratio distribution on crystallization conditions. The description of the twinning phenomenon has(More)
Light-driven proton pumps are present in many organisms. Here, we present a high-resolution structure of a proteorhodopsin from a permafrost bacterium, Exiguobacterium sibiricum rhodopsin (ESR). Contrary to the proton pumps of known structure, ESR possesses three unique features. First, ESR's proton donor is a lysine side chain that is situated very close(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin (bR) provides light-driven vectorial proton transport across a cell membrane. Creation of electrochemical potential at the membrane is a universal step in energy transformation in a cell. Published atomic crystallographic models of early intermediate states of bR show a significant difference between them, and conclusions about pumping(More)
X-ray-radiation-induced alterations to protein structures are still a severe problem in macromolecular crystallography. One way to avoid the influence of radiation damage is to reduce the X-ray dose absorbed by the crystal during data collection. However, here it is demonstrated using the example of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) that even a(More)
Amphipols (APols) have become important tools for the stabilization, folding, and in vitro structural and functional studies of membrane proteins (MPs). Direct crystallization of MPs solubilized in APols would be of high importance for structural biology. However, despite considerable efforts, it is still not clear whether MP/APol complexes can form(More)
Bacteriorhodopsins are a large family of seven-helical transmembrane proteins that function as light-driven proton pumps. Here, we present the crystal structure of a new member of the family, Haloarcula marismortui bacteriorhodopsin I (HmBRI) D94N mutant, at the resolution of 2.5 Å. While the HmBRI retinal-binding pocket and proton donor site are similar to(More)