Valentin A. Pavlov

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Neural circuits regulate cytokine production to prevent potentially damaging inflammation. A prototypical vagus nerve circuit, the inflammatory reflex, inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α production in spleen by a mechanism requiring acetylcholine signaling through the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressed on cytokine-producing macrophages. Nerve(More)
The vagus nerve has an important role in regulation of metabolic homeostasis, and efferent vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic signalling controls immune function and proinflammatory responses via the inflammatory reflex. Dysregulation of metabolism and immune function in obesity are associated with chronic inflammation, a critical step in the pathogenesis of(More)
This review outlines the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the nervous and immune systems of the host in response to an immune challenge. The main focus is the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, which we recently described as a novel function of the efferent vagus nerve. This pathway plays a critical role in controlling the inflammatory(More)
The regulation of the innate immune response is critical for controlling inflammation and for the prevention and treatment of diseases. We recently demonstrated that the efferent vagus nerve inhibits pro-inflammatory cytokine release and protects against systemic inflammation, and termed this vagal function "the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway." The(More)
The innate immune system protects against infection and tissue injury through the specialized organs of the reticuloendothelial system, including the lungs, liver, and spleen. The central nervous system regulates innate immune responses via the vagus nerve, a mechanism termed the cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway. Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits(More)
TNF has a critical mediator role in inflammation and is an important therapeutic target. We recently discovered that TNF production is regulated by neural signals through the vagus nerve. Activation of this "cholinergic antiinflammatory pathway" inhibits the production of TNF and other cytokines and protects animals from the inflammatory damage caused by(More)
The alpha7 subunit-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAChR) is an essential component in the vagus nerve-based cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that regulates the levels of TNF, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and other cytokines during inflammation. Choline is an essential nutrient, a cell membrane constituent, a precursor in the(More)
MIF is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sepsis, arthritis, and other inflammatory diseases. Antibodies against MIF are effective in experimental models of inflammation, and there is interest in strategies to inhibit its deleterious cytokine activities. Here we identify a mechanism of inhibiting MIF pro-inflammatory(More)
The nervous system regulates immune function and inflammation. Experimental evidence shows an important role of the autonomic nervous system in the bidirectional communication between the brain and the immune system, underlying the ability of the brain to monitor immune status and control inflammation. Here we review the involvement of the autonomic nervous(More)
Obesity, a serious and growing health threat, is associated with low-grade inflammation that plays a role in mediating its adverse consequences. Previously, we have discovered a role for neural cholinergic signaling in controlling inflammation, and demonstrated that the cholinergic agent galantamine suppresses excessive proinflammatory cytokine release. The(More)