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BACKGROUND Antiretroviral chemoprophylaxis before exposure is a promising approach for the prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. METHODS We randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men or transgender women who have sex with men to receive a combination of two oral antiretroviral drugs, emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate(More)
OBJECTIVES Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for cervical disease. Using baseline data from the HIV-infected cohort of Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, factors associated with an increased prevalence of HPV were assessed. METHODS Samples from 634 HIV-infected women were tested for the(More)
OBJECTIVE There is a continuous debate on how to adequately evaluate long-term CD4+ cell count in response to combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. Our study evaluated the long-term CD4+ cell count response (up to ten years) after initiation of ART and described the differences in the CD4+(More)
BACKGROUND The natural history of HIV infection has changed dramatically after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Currently, opportunistic illnesses still represent a major cause of death and hospitalization in this population. In this study, we review the trends in opportunistic illnesses incidence rates and compare the results(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) depends on uptake, adherence, and sexual practices. We aimed to assess these factors in a cohort of HIV-negative people at risk of infection. METHODS In our cohort study, men and transgender women who have sex with men previously enrolled in PrEP trials (ATN 082, iPrEx, and US Safety Study) were(More)
INTRODUCTION We describe temporal trends in the mortality rates and factors associated with AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality at the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute (IPEC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ). METHODS Adult patients enrolling from 1986 through 2009 with a minimum follow up of 60 days were included. Vital status was exhaustively(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the early mortality pattern and causes of death among patients starting HAART in Brazil and the United States. METHODS We analyzed the combined data from two clinical cohorts followed at the Johns Hopkins AIDS Service in Baltimore, United States, and the Evandro Chagas Clinical Research Institute AIDS Clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.(More)
BACKGROUND Syphilis infection may potentiate transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the extent to which HIV acquisition was associated with syphilis infection within an HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial and whether emtricitabine/tenofovir (FTC/TDF) modified that association. METHODS The Preexposure Prophylaxis(More)
OBJECTIVE Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) pre-exposure prophylaxis decreases sexual acquisition of HIV infection. We sought to evaluate the renal safety of TDF in HIV-uninfected persons. DESIGN AND METHODS The Iniciativa Profilaxis Pre-Exposición (iPrEx) study randomly assigned 2499 HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess rates of offering and uptake of HIV testing and their predictors among women who attended prenatal care. METHODS A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among postpartum women (N=2,234) who attended at least one prenatal care visit in 12 cities. Independent and probabilistic samples were selected in the cities studied.(More)