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Peptidyl-tRNA dissociation from ribosomes is an energetically costly but apparently inevitable process that accompanies normal protein synthesis. The drop-off products of these events are hydrolysed by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. Mutant selections have been made to identify genes involved in the drop-off of peptidyl-tRNA, using a thermosensitive peptidyl-tRNA(More)
Class 1 peptide release factors (RFs) in Escherichia coli are N(5)-methylated on the glutamine residue of the universally conserved GGQ motif. One other protein alone has been shown to contain N(5)-methylglutamine: E.coli ribosomal protein L3. We identify the L3 methyltransferase as YfcB and show that it methylates ribosomes from a yfcB strain in vitro, but(More)
A post-translational modification affecting the translation termination rate was identified in the universally conserved GGQ sequence of release factor 2 (RF2) from Escherichia coli, which is thought to mimic the CCA end of the tRNA molecule. It was shown by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation that glutamine in position 252 is N:(5)-methylated.(More)
Class I release factors bind to ribosomes in response to stop codons and trigger peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis at the P site. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RFs share one motif: a GGQ tripeptide positioned in a loop at the end of a stem region that interacts with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. The glutamine side chain of this motif is specifically(More)
The expression of very short open reading frames in Escherichia coli can lead to the inhibition of translation and an arrest in cell growth. Inhibition occurs because peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase fails to recycle sufficiently rapidly peptidyl-tRNA released from ribosomes at the stop signal in competition with normal termination, causing starvation for essential(More)
The dependence of the rate of ribosomal recycling (from initiation via protein elongation and termination, and then back to initiation) on the concentrations of release factor RF1 and the ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has been studied in vitro. High RF1 concentration was found to reduce the rate of ribosomal recycling and the extent of this reduction(More)
Protein release factor eRF1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in complex with eRF3 and GTP, is methylated on a functionally crucial Gln residue by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase Ydr140w. Here we show that eRF1 methylation, in addition to these previously characterized components, requires a 15-kDa zinc-binding protein, Ynr046w.(More)
The existence of a conditional lethal temperature-sensitive mutant affecting peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in Escherichia coli suggests that this enzyme is essential to cell survival. We report here the isolation of both chromosomal and multicopy suppressors of this mutant in pth, the gene encoding the hydrolase. In one case, the cloned gene responsible for(More)
Posttranscriptional and posttranslational modification of macromolecules is known to fine-tune their functions. Trm112 is unique, acting as an activator of both tRNA and protein methyltransferases. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Trm112 is required for efficient ribosome synthesis and progression through mitosis. Trm112 copurifies with(More)
Mutants of Escherichia coli partially deficient in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase are killed by the expression of certain very short open reading frames (mini-genes), encoded by the wild-type bar regions of phage lambda. According to the current hypothesis, protein synthesis is shut off, and the host cells die, after essential tRNA species become sequestered due(More)