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Class 1 peptide release factors (RFs) in Escherichia coli are N(5)-methylated on the glutamine residue of the universally conserved GGQ motif. One other protein alone has been shown to contain N(5)-methylglutamine: E.coli ribosomal protein L3. We identify the L3 methyltransferase as YfcB and show that it methylates ribosomes from a yfcB strain in vitro, but(More)
Release factors RF1 and RF2 are required in bacteria for the cleavage of peptidyl-tRNA. A single sequence motif, GGQ, is conserved in all eubacterial, archaebacterial and eukaryotic release factors and may mimic the CCA end of tRNA, although the position of the motif in the crystal structures of human eRF1 and Escherichia coli RF2 is strikingly different.(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA dissociation from ribosomes is an energetically costly but apparently inevitable process that accompanies normal protein synthesis. The drop-off products of these events are hydrolysed by peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase. Mutant selections have been made to identify genes involved in the drop-off of peptidyl-tRNA, using a thermosensitive peptidyl-tRNA(More)
The dependence of the rate of ribosomal recycling (from initiation via protein elongation and termination, and then back to initiation) on the concentrations of release factor RF1 and the ribosome recycling factor (RRF) has been studied in vitro. High RF1 concentration was found to reduce the rate of ribosomal recycling and the extent of this reduction(More)
The ubiquitous tripeptide Gly-Gly-Gln in class 1 polypeptide release factors triggers polypeptide release on ribosomes. The Gln residue in both bacterial and yeast release factors is N5-methylated, despite their distinct evolutionary origin. Methylation of eRF1 in yeast is performed by the heterodimeric methyltransferase (MTase) Mtq2p/Trm112p, and requires(More)
A post-translational modification affecting the translation termination rate was identified in the universally conserved GGQ sequence of release factor 2 (RF2) from Escherichia coli, which is thought to mimic the CCA end of the tRNA molecule. It was shown by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation that glutamine in position 252 is N:(5)-methylated.(More)
Protein release factor eRF1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in complex with eRF3 and GTP, is methylated on a functionally crucial Gln residue by the S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase Ydr140w. Here we show that eRF1 methylation, in addition to these previously characterized components, requires a 15-kDa zinc-binding protein, Ynr046w.(More)
Mutants of Escherichia coli partially deficient in peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase are killed by the expression of certain very short open reading frames (mini-genes), encoded by the wild-type bar regions of phage lambda. According to the current hypothesis, protein synthesis is shut off, and the host cells die, after essential tRNA species become sequestered due(More)
Class I release factors bind to ribosomes in response to stop codons and trigger peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis at the P site. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic RFs share one motif: a GGQ tripeptide positioned in a loop at the end of a stem region that interacts with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. The glutamine side chain of this motif is specifically(More)
The expression of very short open reading frames in Escherichia coli can lead to the inhibition of translation and an arrest in cell growth. Inhibition occurs because peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase fails to recycle sufficiently rapidly peptidyl-tRNA released from ribosomes at the stop signal in competition with normal termination, causing starvation for essential(More)