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Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) influences the differentiation and survival of retinal photoreceptors in vivo and in vitro, but it is not known whether it acts directly on photoreceptor FGF receptors or indirectly through activation of surrounding cells. To clarify the effects of FGF-2 on photoreceptor survival, we developed a purified photoreceptor(More)
1. Edge contrast enhancement is an integrated visual function based on the complex centre-surround organization of the cone photoreceptor light response. While centre responses result from direct light activation, surround responses are thought to result from lateral inhibition mediated by horizontal cells. This feedback signal has been attributed to GABAA(More)
In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a majority of causative mutations affect genes solely expressed in rods; however, cone degeneration inevitably follows rod cell loss. Following transplantation and in vitro studies, we demonstrated the role of photoreceptor cell paracrine interactions and identified a Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor (RdCVF), which increases(More)
PURPOSE Duchenne muscular dystrophy is frequently associated with a reduced amplitude of b-wave under scotopic conditions in the electroretinogram. This suggests that the dystrophin gene-encoded proteins play a role in retinal neurotransmission. The abnormal neurotransmission has been attributed to altered expressions of C-terminal products of the(More)
Female substance abusers recruited from the community were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 brief interventions that differentially targeted their personality and reasons for drug use. The 90-min interventions were: (a) a motivation-matched intervention involving personality-specific motivational and coping skills training, (b) a motivational control(More)
The retina is a part of the central nervous system that has organized architecture, with neurons in layers from the photoreceptors, both rods and cones in contact with the retinal pigmented epithelium in the most distant part on the retina considering the direction of light, and the ganglion cells in the most proximal distance. This architecture allows the(More)
Among the identified risk factors of age-related macular degeneration, sunlight is known to induce cumulative damage to the retina. A photosensitive derivative of the visual pigment, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), may be involved in this phototoxicity. The high energy visible light between 380 nm and 500 nm (blue light) is incriminated. Our aim(More)
BACKGROUND Transplantation as a therapeutic strategy for inherited retinal degeneration has been historically viewed to restore vision as a method by replacing the lost retinal cells and attempting to reconstruct the neural circuitry with stem cells, progenitor cells and mature neural retinal cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS We present evidence for an(More)
PURPOSE The quantitative and qualitative ganglioside composition of retinal photoreceptor cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to analyze the lipid, especially ganglioside, make-up of photoreceptors compared to other retinal cells. METHODS Retinas from adult normal rats were mechanically separated into outer (photoreceptors) and inner (other(More)
To examine at which stage the unusual ganglioside composition observed in adult retinal photoreceptor cells was established, and to see whether ganglioside changes could be correlated to distinct maturational events, quantitative and qualitative variations in gangliosides within pure sheets of photoreceptors during postnatal differentiation and aging of(More)