Valérie Fontaine

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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important factor in various acute and chronic neurodegenerative disorders. In retinal ischemia, we show early, transient upregulation of TNF, TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1), and TNF-R2 6 hr after reperfusion preceding neuronal cell loss. To assess the specific role of TNF and its receptors, we compared ischemia-reperfusion-induced(More)
In retinitis pigmentosa (RP), a majority of causative mutations affect genes solely expressed in rods; however, cone degeneration inevitably follows rod cell loss. Following transplantation and in vitro studies, we demonstrated the role of photoreceptor cell paracrine interactions and identified a Rod-derived Cone Viability Factor (RdCVF), which increases(More)
The retina is a part of the central nervous system that has organized architecture, with neurons in layers from the photoreceptors, both rods and cones in contact with the retinal pigmented epithelium in the most distant part on the retina considering the direction of light, and the ganglion cells in the most proximal distance. This architecture allows the(More)
Among the identified risk factors of age-related macular degeneration, sunlight is known to induce cumulative damage to the retina. A photosensitive derivative of the visual pigment, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), may be involved in this phototoxicity. The high energy visible light between 380 nm and 500 nm (blue light) is incriminated. Our aim(More)
sGi2 is a spliced variant of the GTP-binding protein G(alpha i2). By difference with G(alpha i2), which is mainly present at the plasma membrane, sGi2 is localized in intracellular compartments. The splicing event generates a novel C-terminal region in sGi2, which is necessary for its intracellular localization. The role of sGi2 is presently unknown,(More)
BACKGROUND Transplantation as a therapeutic strategy for inherited retinal degeneration has been historically viewed to restore vision as a method by replacing the lost retinal cells and attempting to reconstruct the neural circuitry with stem cells, progenitor cells and mature neural retinal cells. METHODS AND FINDINGS We present evidence for an(More)
To investigate the complexity of alternative splicing in the retina, we sequenced and analyzed a total of 115,706 clones from normalized cDNA libraries from mouse neural retina (66,217) and rat retinal pigmented epithelium (49,489). Based upon clustering the cDNAs and mapping them with their respective genomes, the estimated numbers of genes were 9,134 for(More)
The accumulation of N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E, a toxic by-product of the visual pigment cycle) in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is a major cause of visual impairment in the elderly. Photooxidation of A2E results in retinal pigment epithelium degeneration followed by that of associated photoreceptors. Present treatments rely on(More)
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