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The sense of touch provides critical information about our physical environment by transforming mechanical energy into electrical signals. It is postulated that mechanically activated cation channels initiate touch sensation, but the identity of these molecules in mammals has been elusive. Piezo2 is a rapidly adapting, mechanically activated ion channel(More)
Disequilibrium between bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts is central to many bone diseases. Here, we show that dysregulated expression of translationally controlled isoforms of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) differentially affect bone mass. Alternative translation initiation that is controlled by the mammalian target of(More)
11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) catalyses intracellular regeneration of active glucocorticoids, notably in liver and adipose tissue. 11β-HSD1 is increased selectively in adipose tissue in human obesity, a change implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. With high fat (HF)-feeding, adipose tissue 11β-HSD1 is down-regulated in(More)
The fish pineal organ contains typical and, in some species, modified photoreceptor cells involved in the photoperiodic control of melatonin production. In the majority of species studied, the rhythm in melatonin production is driven by an intra-pineal circadian oscillator synchronized by the light:dark cycle. In the present study, it is shown that the(More)
Trout pineal cells maintained in primary culture produce melatonin in high amounts during night time and low amounts during daytime. The dark-induced increase in melatonin production was enhanced, in a dose-dependent manner, by elevating extracellular calcium concentration. Low external calcium concentration reduced nocturnal and diurnal melatonin(More)
The pineal organ of fish contains photoreceptor cells. In some species (e.g., pike) each photoreceptor is a cellular circadian system which contains a photoreceptive unit, the clock and an output unit. In others (e.g., trout) the clock is lacking. The main rhythmic output of the pineal photoreceptor is melatonin, an internal 'zeitgeber' of the organisms.(More)
Two long and one truncated isoforms (termed LAP*, LAP, and LIP, respectively) of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) are expressed from a single intronless Cebpb gene by alternative translation initiation. Isoform expression is sensitive to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated activation of the translation(More)
Murine 3T3-L1 adipocytes are widely used as a cellular model of obesity. However, whereas transfection of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes is straightforward, ectopic gene expression in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes has proved challenging. Here, we used the pSLIK vector system to generate stable doxycycline-inducible expression of the liver-enriched inhibitor protein(More)
Trout pineal photoreceptor cells were dissociated by trypsin-DNase digestion and further purified by a Percoll gradient centrifugation. Total cells or purified photoreceptor cells were then embedded in a collagen gel, or layered on culture-treated polycarbonate membranes, or maintained in suspension, with RPMI 1640 medium or BGjb medium. It has been shown(More)
Tests that allow the precise determination of psychophysical thresholds for vibration and grating orientation provide valuable information about mechanosensory function that are relevant for clinical diagnosis as well as for basic research. Here, we describe two psychophysical tests designed to determine the vibration detection threshold (automated system)(More)