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A variety of interconnect technologies and standards (DIMMs, MCP, POP, stacked-die and 3D-stack) enable a controller IC to communicate with an external SDRAM, or with multiple SDRAMs over a shared interconnect. Low-power requirements have driven mobile controllers to mobile-SDRAM (LPDDR) memory solutions. However, LPDDR configurations do not scale to match(More)
We describe CACTI-IO, an extension to CACTI [4] that includes power, area and timing models for the IO and PHY of the off-chip memory interface for various server and mobile configurations. CACTI-IO enables design space exploration of the off-chip IO along with the DRAM and cache parameters. We describe the models added and three case studies that use(More)
—3D interconnect between two dies can span a wide range of bandwidths and region areas, depending on the application, partitioning of the dies, die size, and floorplan. We explore the concept of dividing such an interconnect into local clusters, each with a cluster clock. We combine such clustering with a choice of three clock synchronization schemes(More)
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