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Clinal patterns of autosomal genetic diversity within Europe have been interpreted in previous studies in terms of a Neolithic demic diffusion model for the spread of agriculture; in contrast, studies using mtDNA have traced many founding lineages to the Paleolithic and have not shown strongly clinal variation. We have used 11 human Y-chromosomal biallelic(More)
We analyzed 10 Y-chromosomal binary markers in 363 males from 8 populations in Northern Europe and 5 Y microsatellites in 346 of these individuals. These populations can be grouped according to cultural, linguistic, or geographical criteria, and the groupings are different in each case. We can therefore ask which criterion best corresponds to the(More)
The identification of a growing number of novel Mendelian disorders and private mutations in the Roma (Gypsies) points to their unique genetic heritage. Linguistic evidence suggests that they are of diverse Indian origins. Their social structure within Europe resembles that of the jatis of India, where the endogamous group, often defined by profession, is(More)
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-404729-7.00002-2 Copyright © 2015 Eric H. Davidson and Isabelle S. Peter. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introductory Overview of Developmental GRNs 42 1.1 GRN function and how GRNs are encoded in the genome 42 1.2 GRN hierarchy and modular organization 43 1.3 Models of GRN topology 44 2. Boolean(More)
Using principal component (PC) analysis, we studied the genetic constitution of 3,112 individuals from Europe as portrayed by more than 270,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped with the Illumina Infinium platform. In cohorts where the sample size was >100, one hundred randomly chosen samples were used for analysis to minimize the sample size(More)
The 8-10 million European Roma/Gypsies are a founder population of common origins that has subsequently split into multiple socially divergent and geographically dispersed Gypsy groups. Unlike other founder populations, whose genealogy has been extensively documented, the demographic history of the Gypsies is not fully understood and, given the lack of(More)
The chemokine receptor CCR5 is encoded by the CMKBR5 gene located on the p21.3 region of human chromosome 3, and constitutes the major co-receptor for the macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1. A mutant allele of the CCR5 gene, Delta ccr5 , was shown to provide to homozygotes with a strong resistance against infection by HIV. The frequency of the Delta ccr5(More)
Analysis of 81 phenylketonuria families from Bulgaria, Lithuania and eastern Germany demonstrated a high frequency of haplotype 2 and the associated Arg408 → Trp408 substitution. Haplotype 3 and the splicing mutation in intron 12 are rare or absent in the groups studies. Pooling the data on European populations suggests a Balto-Slavic origin of the defect(More)
Direct sequencing of the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene indicated the existence of silent mutations in codons 232, 245, and 385, linked to specific RFLP haplotypes in several Caucasian populations, namely Germans, Bulgarians, Italians, Turks, and Lithuanians. All three mutations create a new restriction site and can be easily detected on PCR amplified(More)
The genetic composition of the Lithuanian population was investigated by analysing mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region 1, RFLP polymorphisms and Y chromosomal biallelic and STR markers in six ethnolinguistic groups of Lithuanians, to address questions about the origin and genetic structure of the present day population. There were no significant genetic(More)