Vaibhav Shankar

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We have used the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction technique to gain insight into the pathogenesis of encephalitis caused by Borna disease virus (BDV). RNA specific for BDV was first detected in the olfactory bulb of intranasally infected rats at 6 days postinfection (p.i.). At 14 days p.i., high levels of BDV RNA were found in all brain(More)
Borna disease (BD) virus is a partially characterized neurotropic agent with a predilection for neurons and astrocytes in the limbic system and cerebrum of infected hosts. Although it usually causes a fatal encephalitis, some laboratory animals which have been experimentally inoculated can develop a persistent non-fatal infection characterized by a(More)
Sera from 295 horses in the USA were examined by an indirect immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assays to determine the prevalence of Borna disease virus infection. Eight (2.7 per cent) of the samples were positive in both assays, and 18 (6.1 per cent) were positive only in the Western blot assay. The indirect fluorescence titres ranged from 1:20 to(More)
Rabies virus pathogenesis was studied in a mouse model by inoculation of the masseter muscle. At different intervals, the masseter muscle, trigeminal ganglia, and brain were analyzed for virus-specific RNA with a polymerase chain reaction assay, which revealed that as early as 18 h postinfection (p.i.), virus-specific RNA was present in the trigeminal(More)
Online social networks, such as Twitter, have soared in popularity and in turn have become attractive targets of spam. In fact, spammers have evolved their strategies to stay ahead of Twitter's anti-spam measures in this short period of time. In this paper, we investigate the strategies Twitter spammers employ to reach relevant target audiences. Due to(More)
With the emergence of raccoons (Procyon lotor) as the primary rabies reservoir in the United States of America, a recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein (V-RG) virus vaccine was developed that protected raccoons by the oral route from rabies infection. Despite extensive laboratory evaluation, vaccine safety concerns remained about free-choice distribution(More)
The literature supports that unique rabies virus (RABV) variants are often compartmentalized in different species of bats. In Colorado, two divergent mtDNA lineages of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) co-occur. RABV associated with this species also segregates into two clades. We hypothesized that unique RABV variants might be associated with mtDNA(More)
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