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We report observation of a fine structure component in backscattered light from mucosal tissue which is periodic in wavelength. This structure is ordinarily masked by a diffusive background. We have identified the origin of this component as being due to light which is Mie scattered by surface epithelial cell nuclei. By analyzing the amplitude and frequency(More)
We report what we believe to be the first evidence of localized nanoscale photonic jets generated at the shadow-side surfaces of micronscale, circular dielectric cylinders illuminated by a plane wave. These photonic nanojets have waists smaller than the diffraction limit and propagate over several optical wavelengths without significant diffraction. We have(More)
Diffuse reflectance spectra were collected from adenomatous colon polyps (cancer precursors) and normal colonic mucosa of patients undergoing colonoscopy. We analyzed the data by using an analytical light diffusion model, which was tested and validated on a physical tissue model composed of polystyrene beads and hemoglobin. Four parameters were obtained:(More)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests often have a trade-off between efficacy and patient acceptability/cost. Fecal tests (occult blood, methylation) engender excellent patient compliance but lack requisite performance underscoring the need for better population screening tests. We assessed the utility of microRNAs (miRNAs) as markers of field(More)
Microarrays have enabled the determination of how thousands of genes are expressed to coordinate function within single organisms. Yet applications to natural or engineered communities where different organisms interact to produce complex properties are hampered by theoretical and technological limitations. Here we describe a general method to accurately(More)
BACKGROUND Since the urea breath test (UBT) indirectly detects gastric Helicobacter pylori infection by measuring urease activity, the possibility of false-positive results due to other urease-producing bacteria cannot be excluded. Previous studies have shown that increased 14CO2 activity in early breath samples could be attributed to urea hydrolysis in the(More)
BACKGROUND Understanding the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is key in the quest for the early diagnosis and prevention of this type of malignancy. The current study correlated early biochemical and histologic changes in oral tissue with spectral features in fluorescence, reflectance, and light scattering spectra(More)
Recently, there has been a major thrust to understand biological processes at the nanoscale. Optical microscopy has been exceedingly useful in imaging cell microarchitecture. Characterization of cell organization at the nanoscale, however, has been stymied by the lack of practical means of cell analysis at these small scales. To address this need, we(More)
Field carcinogenesis detection represents a promising means for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, although current techniques (e.g., flexible sigmoidoscopy) lack the requisite sensitivity. The novel optical technology low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) spectroscopy, allows identification of microscale architectural consequences of the field(More)
OBJECTIVES Emerging evidence implicates the SNAIL family of transcriptional repressors in cancer development; however, the role of SNAIL in colorectal cancer has not been established. To investigate the importance of SNAIL in colorectal carcinogenesis, we examined the phenotypic and cellular consequences of SNAIL down-regulation in the MIN mouse. METHODS(More)