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— Frequency and time domain models are developed for backplane (BP), printed circuit board (PCB), and silicon interposer (SI) links using six-port transfer matrices (ABCD matrices) for bumps, vias and connectors, and coupled multicon-ductor transmission lines for traces. The six-port transfer matrix approach enables easy computation of the transfer(More)
This paper presents the major limitations to the interconnect technology scaling at future technology generations and demonstrates both evolutionary and radical potential solutions to the BEOL scaling problem. To address the local interconnect challenges, a novel hybrid Al-Cu interconnect technology is introduced. Performances of carbon-based interconnects(More)
In this paper we present the design and fabrication of air-clad planar transmission lines and TSVs that can be used as horizontal and vertical chip-chip interconnects. Performance improvement by using heterogeneous air-clad dielectric is presented for these two types of interconnect structures that establishes the basic motivation for fabricating these(More)
In this paper, emerging low-power interconnect options for CMOS and beyond CMOS technologies are reviewed. First, electrical interconnects based on carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons are discussed. It is found that carbon-based electrical interconnects can potentially outperform their conventional Cu counterpart at technology nodes close to or below(More)
An overview of three-dimensional integrated circuits (3D ICs) is presented in this paper. The key potential applications of 3D ICs that have the most impact in terms of performance, power and area are highlighted, followed by a brief overview of the different technology approaches to implement 3D ICs. Further, the key challenges to 3D integration are(More)
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