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Phylogenetic and familial estimates of mitochondrial substitution rates: study of control region mutations in deep-rooting pedigrees.
TLDR
The results reconcile the controversial rate estimates in the phylogenetic and familial studies; the fast sites prevail in the latter, whereas the slow and moderate sites dominate the phylogenetics-rate estimations.
Bacterial infection remodels the DNA methylation landscape of human dendritic cells.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that the infection of human dendritic cells with a live pathogenic bacteria is associated with rapid and active demethylation at thousands of loci, independent of cell division, and play a previously unappreciated role in regulating the transcriptional response to infection.
Genetic Structure of the Ancestral Population of Modern Humans
TLDR
This ancestral population was characterized by an effective size of about 10,000 as estimated from the nucleotide diversity; this size may describe the number of breeding individuals over a long time during the Middle Pleistocene or reflect a speciation bottleneck from an initially larger population at the end of this period.
Adaptively introgressed Neandertal haplotype at the OAS locus functionally impacts innate immune responses in humans
TLDR
It is suggested that the Neandertal-introgressed haplotype likely reintroduced an ancestral splice variant of OAS1 encoding a more active protein, suggesting that adaptive introgression occurred as a means to resurrect adaptive variation that had been lost outside Africa.
Genetic heterogeneity in regional populations of Quebec--parental lineages in the Gaspe Peninsula.
TLDR
Descendants of early settlers, Acadians and Loyalists, preserved their identity more than those of French Canadian and Channel Islander "latecomers," and F(ST) analysis indicated their greater differentiation.
Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.
TLDR
Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion.
Archaic lineages in the history of modern humans.
TLDR
It is proposed that African chromosomes descend from at least two lineages that have been evolving separately for a period of time, one of them underwent range expansion colonizing different continents, including Africa, where it mixed with another, local lineage represented today by a large fraction of African-specific haplotypes.
Vaginal microbiome in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a case–control study
TLDR
To explore differences in the vaginal microbiome between preterm and term deliveries, a large number of studies have looked at the importance of protecting the immune system during pregnancy and the first trimester.
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