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Enhanced Peroxynitrite Formation Is Associated with Vascular Aging
Lower free nitric oxide levels in aged rat aortas are found in conjunction with a sevenfold higher expression and activity of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), which suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a major role in the vascular aging process.
Central role of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen species in nitroglycerin tolerance and cross-tolerance.
Nitrate tolerance is mediated, at least in significant part, by inhibition of vascular ALDH-2 and that mitochondrial ROS contribute to this inhibition, and GTN tolerance may be viewed as a metabolic syndrome characterized by mitochondrial dysfunction.
High Glucose Causes Upregulation of Cyclooxygenase-2 and Alters Prostanoid Profile in Human Endothelial Cells: Role of Protein Kinase C and Reactive Oxygen Species
High glucose, via PKC signaling, induces oxidative stress and upregulation of COX-2, resulting in reduced NO availability and altered prostanoid profile.
Vascular Consequences of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Uncoupling for the Activity and Expression of the Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and the cGMP-Dependent Protein Kinase
- T. Münzel, A. Daiber, V. Ullrich, A. Mülsch
- BiologyArteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology
- 1 August 2005
The present review summarizes current concepts concerning eNOS uncoupling and also focuses on the consequences for downstream signaling with respect to activity and expression of the sGC and cGK-I in various diseases.
Inhibition of platelet aggregation by carbon monoxide is mediated by activation of guanylate cyclase.
It is concluded that cGMP is an important feedback regulator of the Pl response and that already a 25% increase in its steady state levels can cause inhibition of platelet aggregation.
Peroxynitrite and vascular endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus.
The authors' studies indicate that in diabetes the synthetic enzymes of the two major endogenous vasodilators undergo oxidative inactivation by different mechanisms, which are, however, tightly interdependent.
On the mechanism of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2 biosynthesis.
A cage radical mechanism is proposed for both enzymes according to which the initial radical process is terminated through oxidation of carbon-centered radicals by the iron-sulfur catalytic site, followed by ionic rearrangement to PGI2 or TXA2.
Peroxynitrite formed by simultaneous generation of nitric oxide and superoxide selectively inhibits bovine aortic prostacyclin synthase
Tyrosine Nitration as a Mechanism of Selective Inactivation of Prostacyclin Synthase by Peroxynitrite
The simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide proved to be as efficient as a bolus of peroxynitrite which supports a possible inactivation of prostacyclin synthase under in vivo conditions, and substantiates an often suggested crucial role ofsuperoxide in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system.
A quantitative test for superoxide radicals produced in biological systems.
The preparation and properties of a partially succinoylated cytochrome c, suited for the detection of superoxide anion radicals in liver microsomes, is reported. By succinoylation of 45% of the…