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Pharmacogenomics of interferon beta and glatiramer acetate response: a review of the literature.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most common inflammatory and degenerative autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system with considerable heterogeneity in all aspects, including response toExpand
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Polymorphisms in the interleukin‐4 and IL‐4 receptor genes and multiple sclerosis: a study in Spanish‐Basque, Northern Irish and Belgian populations
Cytokine gene polymorphisms are known to influence susceptibility and disease course of many autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous systemExpand
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Polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 and IL-4 receptor genes modify risk for chronic inflammatory arthropathies in women.
Rheumatoid and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (RA, JIA) are chronic inflammatory arthropathies with polygenic autoimmune background. We analysed the IL-4 +33 C/T and IL-4R Q551R single nucleotideExpand
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The CTLA4 +49 A/G*G–CT60*G haplotype is associated with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in Flanders
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system white matter characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal damage. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4Expand
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CTLA4 gene polymorphisms and multiple sclerosis in Northern Ireland
Four CTLA4 polymorphisms were investigated in a Northern Irish collection of relapsing-remitting (RR) and primary-progressive (PP) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The CTLA4 promoter (-318 C/T),Expand
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The CTLA4+49A/G and CT60 polymorphisms and chronic inflammatory arthropathies in Northern Ireland.
Rheumatoid and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (RA, JIA) are chronic inflammatory arthropathies with an autoimmune background. The cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) protein plays a key role inExpand
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Pharmacogenomics and Patient Treatment Parameters to Opioid Treatment in Chronic Pain: A Focus on Morphine, Oxycodone, Tramadol, and Fentanyl
Objective Opioids are one of the most commonly prescribed medicines for chronic pain. However, their use for chronic pain has been controversial. The objective of this literature review was toExpand
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Study of polymorphisms in the interleukin-4 and IL-4 receptor genes in a population of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis.
This study aimed to investigate in a population of Brazilian patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the promoter region of IL4 (*33C-T) and receptor IL4RExpand
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Metabolic and safety issues for multiple sclerosis pharmacotherapy – opportunities for personalised medicine
Introduction: A number of disease-modifying therapies have become available to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) in recent years. As the effects of these medications are unpredictable and they areExpand
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