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The K tree score: quantification of differences in the relative branch length and topology of phylogenetic trees
A new phylogenetic comparison method that measures overall differences in the relative branch length and topology of two phylogenetic trees, resulting in the minimum branch length distance or K tree score, which allows the evaluation of the performance of phylogenetic algorithms, not only with respect to their topological accuracy, but also to the reproduction of a given branch length variation.
Stick Insect Genomes Reveal Natural Selection’s Role in Parallel Speciation
Stick to the Bush Can the underlying genetic changes driving the divergence of populations into new species be predicted or repeated? Soria-Carrasco et al. (p. 738) investigated the genetic changes
The evolution of novel host use is unlikely to be constrained by trade‐offs or a lack of genetic variation
Results suggest that genetic trade‐offs are not the primary cause of dietary specialization in L. melissa butterflies, and most genetic variants that affected performance on one host had little to no effect on the other host.
Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Phenotypic Traits Subject to a Range of Intensities of Natural Selection in Timema cristinae*
No relationship between variation in levels of divergence among traits in nature and variation in parameters describing the genetic architecture of those same traits is found, and a modest number of SNPs that were associated with traits and sometimes explained a large proportion of trait variation are identified.
Diversification rates and the latitudinal gradient of diversity in mammals
Testing a set of 232 genera taken from a mammalian supertree and reconstructed dated Bayesian phylogenetic trees found that the average diversification rate was similar among all latitudinal bands, suggesting other factors may be required to explain the latitudinal gradient of diversity in mammals.
Transitions between phases of genomic differentiation during stick-insect speciation
Intermediate phases of speciation are associated with genome-wide differentiation and mate choice, but not growth of a few genomic islands, and a gap in genomic differentiation between sympatric taxa that still exchange genes and those that do not is found.
Selection on a Genetic Polymorphism Counteracts Ecological Speciation in a Stick Insect
An individual-based model is developed that shows how the melanistic phenotype acts as a "genetic bridge" that increases gene flow between populations living on different hosts that impose constraints on both local adaptation and speciation.
Natural selection and the predictability of evolution in Timema stick insects
Study of the evolution of cryptic body coloration and pattern in a stick insect using 25 years of field data, experiments, and genomics found that evolution is more difficult to predict when it involves a balance between multiple selective factors and uncertainty in environmental conditions than when it involved feedback loops that cause consistent back-and-forth fluctuations.
Long-term balancing selection on chromosomal variants associated with crypsis in a stick insect.
The genetic architecture and maintenance of phenotypic morphs that confer crypsis in Timema cristinae stick insects are studied, combining phenotypesic information and genotyping-by-sequencing data from 1,360 samples across 21 populations.
Color phenotypes are under similar genetic control in two distantly related species of Timema stick insect
It is shown that similar color phenotypes of the two species cluster in phenotypic space, and genome‐wide association mapping is used to show that in both species, color is controlled by few loci, dominance relationships between color alleles are the same, and SNPs associated with color phenotype colocalize to the same linkage group.