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Mechanisms for Insulin Resistance: Common Threads and Missing Links
Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase
It is shown that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis.
Mechanism of Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease*
The hypothesis hepatic steatosis leads to hepatic insulin resistance by stimulating gluconeogenesis and activating PKC-ϵ and JNK1, which may interfere with tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IRS-2 and impair the ability of insulin to activate glycogen synthase is supported.
The pathogenesis of insulin resistance: integrating signaling pathways and substrate flux.
Therapies that decrease ectopic lipid storage and diminish macrophage-induced WAT lipolysis will reverse the root causes of type 2 diabetes.
Lipid-induced insulin resistance: unravelling the mechanism
The role of hepatic lipids in hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes
Therapeutic approaches based on a key role for hepatic diacylglycerol activation of protein kinase Cε in triggering hepatic insulin resistance could alleviate the related epidemics of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and type 2 diabetes.
Desnutrin/ATGL is regulated by AMPK and is required for a brown adipose phenotype.
FGF19 as a Postprandial, Insulin-Independent Activator of Hepatic Protein and Glycogen Synthesis
FGF19 treatment restored the loss of glycogen in diabetic animals lacking insulin and activates a physiologically important, insulin-independent endocrine pathway that regulates hepatic protein and glycogen metabolism.
Standard operating procedures for describing and performing metabolic tests of glucose homeostasis in mice
Issues pertaining to the design and performance of various tests of glucose metabolism, and guidelines for the description of methods, presentation of data and interpretation of results are discussed.