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Large differences in tropical aerosol forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth's surface
The effect of radiative forcing by anthropogenic aerosols is one of the largest sources of uncertainty in climate predictions. Direct observations of the forcing are therefore needed, particularlyExpand
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Observational determination of the greenhouse effect
Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found toExpand
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Thermodynamic regulation of ocean warming by cirrus clouds deduced from observations of the 1987 El Niño
Observations made during the 1987 El Niño show that in the upper range of sea surface temperatures, the greenhouse effect increases with surface temperature at a rate which exceeds the rate at whichExpand
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A model for the natural and anthropogenic aerosols over the tropical Indian Ocean derived from Indian Ocean Experiment data
The physical, chemical and radiative properties of aerosols are investigated over the tropical Indian Ocean during the first field phase (FFP) of the international Indian Ocean Experiment. The FFPExpand
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Dust plumes over the Pacific, Indian, and Atlantic oceans: Climatology and radiative impact
[1] Multiple satellite data sets in conjunction with the Monte Carlo Aerosol-CloudRadiation (MACR) model are employed to determine climatological distributions and radiative impacts of dust plumesExpand
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Direct observations of aerosol radiative forcing over the tropical Indian Ocean during the January-F
Simultaneous measurements of aerosol optical depth, size distribution, and incoming solar radiation flux were conducted with spectral and broadband radiometers over the coastal Indian region, ArabianExpand
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The direct observations of large aerosol radiative forcing in the Himalayan region
[1] We show here that absorbing aerosols have led to a large reduction of surface solar radiation during winter over the Himalayan region. Our results are based on radiometric, aerosol and LidarExpand
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Chemical, microphysical, and radiative effects of Indian Ocean aerosols
Received 19 April 2002; revised 2 August 2002; accepted 6 August 2002; published 14 December 2002. [1] Extensive and long-term multistation measurements of aerosol properties and radiative fluxesExpand
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Climate modeling through radiative‐convective models
We present a review of the radiative-convective models that have been used in studies pertaining to the earth's climate. After familiarizing the reader with the theoretical background, modelingExpand
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Impact of monsoon transitions on the physical and optical properties of aerosols
increased by an order of magnitude from 0.03 to 0.47 � g/m 3 . These measurements suggest a large increase in the aerosol radiative forcing of the region with the arrival of the dry monsoon.
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