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Sprites produced by quasi‐electrostatic heating and ionization in the lower ionosphere
Quasi-electrostatic (QE) fields that temporarily exist at high altitudes following the sudden removal (e.g., by a lightning discharge) of thundercloud charge at low altitudes lead to ambient electronExpand
Effects of photoionization on propagation and branching of positive and negative streamers in sprites
[1] Modeling studies indicate that double-headed streamers originating from single electron avalanches in lightning-driven quasi-static electric fields at mesospheric altitudes accelerate and expand,Expand
Monte Carlo model for analysis of thermal runaway electrons in streamer tips in transient luminous events and streamer zones of lightning leaders
[1] Streamers are thin filamentary plasmas that can initiate spark discharges in relatively short (several centimeters) gaps at near ground pressures and are also known to act as the building blocksExpand
Upward electrical discharges from thunderstorms
Blue jets, gigantic jets, cloud-to-cloud discharges and cloud-to-ground lightning are all electrical discharges from thunderclouds. An analysis of numerical simulations and observations of theseExpand
Electrical discharge from a thundercloud top to the lower ionosphere
For over a century, numerous undocumented reports have appeared about unusual large-scale luminous phenomena above thunderclouds and, more than 80 years ago, it was suggested that an electricalExpand
Energy and fluxes of thermal runaway electrons produced by exponential growth of streamers during the stepping of lightning leaders and in transient luminous events
[1] In the present paper, we demonstrate that the exponential expansion of streamers propagating in fields higher than the critical fields for stable propagation of streamers of a given polarityExpand
Spatial structure of sprites
A theory of the electrical breakdown (EB) above thunderstorms is developed. The streamer type of the EB is proposed for the explanation of recent observations of fine spatial structures and bursts ofExpand
Recent advances in theory of transient luminous events
[1] This paper presents an overview of the recent modeling efforts directed to the interpretation of observed features of transient luminous events termed sprites, blue jets, and gigantic jets. TheExpand
Relaxation of transient lower ionospheric disturbances caused by lightning-whistler-induced electron precipitation bursts
A quantitative model of the relaxation of transient lower ionospheric (D region) disturbances caused by lightning-induced electron precipitation is developed, taking advantage of known particularExpand
An overview of the recent modeling efforts directed on interpretation of ob- served features of transient luminous events (TLEs) termed sprites, blue jets, blue starters and gigantic jets isExpand