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Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment
TLDR
The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Expand
The non-target impact of spinosyns on beneficial arthropods.
TLDR
A thorough review of possible risks of spinosad and novel spinosyns (such as spinetoram) to beneficial arthropods (notably natural enemies and pollinators) is provided, and the acute lethal effect and multiple sublethal effects have been identified in almost all arthropod groups studied. Expand
Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behavior
TLDR
It is recommended that behavior tests should be included in risk assessment tests for highly toxic pesticides because impairment of the foraging behavior can result in a decreased pollination, lower reproduction and finally in colony mortality due to a lack of food. Expand
Bombus terrestris as pollinator-and-vector to suppress Botrytis cinerea in greenhouse strawberry.
TLDR
This greenhouse study provides strong evidence that B. terrestris bumblebees can vector a MCA to reduce B. cinerea incidence in greenhouse strawberries, resulting in higher yields and an equally efficient dissemination of the biocontrol agent into the flowers with only half the initial concentration of Prestop-Mix, which illustrates the importance of the diluent. Expand
Age- and task-dependent foraging gene expression in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.
TLDR
The results confirm the proposed role for PKGs in division of labor and discover an age-related decrease in Btfor expression in both nursing and foraging bumblebees, which speculate that the presence of BtFOR is required for correct adaptation to new external stimuli and rapid learning for foraging. Expand
Development of a new dispenser for microbiological control agents and evaluation of dissemination by bumblebees in greenhouse strawberries.
TLDR
It is demonstrated that, with the use of the newly developed dispenser, bumblebee workers carried high amounts of MCA, and this resulted in a successful dissemination of M CA into strawberry flowers. Expand
Hazards and uptake of chitin synthesis inhibitors in bumblebees Bombus terrestris.
TLDR
The present results suggest that CSIs should be applied with caution in combination with bumblebees, with a dramatic reduction in brood production, especially after oral treatment with pollen and sugar/water. Expand
Lethal and sublethal side-effect assessment supports a more benign profile of spinetoram compared with spinosad in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.
TLDR
Spinetoram is safer for bumblebees by direct contact and oral exposure than the use of spinosad, and therefore it can be applied safely in combination with B. terrestris, and neither spinosyn has a negative effect on the foraging behaviour of these beneficial insects. Expand
Dietary chlorantraniliprole suppresses reproduction in worker bumblebees.
TLDR
The present study identified an important physiological endpoint of sublethal effects on reproduction, as this is associated with lethargic behaviour after oral intake, and this is a factor that should now be incorporated into future risk assessments. Expand
A laboratory evaluation to determine the compatibility of microbiological control agents with the pollinator Bombus terrestris.
TLDR
Most of the MCAs tested can be considered safe for use in combination with B. terrestris, based on the International Organisation for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC) classification, however, some can be harmful, such as the biofungicide Serenade and the bioinsecticide Botanigard. Expand
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