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Endocrine and intracrine sources of androgens in women: inhibition of breast cancer and other roles of androgens and their precursor dehydroepiandrosterone.
TLDR
DHEA has been found to increase bone mineral density and to stimulate vaginal maturation without affecting the endometrium, while improving well-being and libido with no significant side effects and thus minimizing the potential side effects observed with androgens or estrogens administered systemically.
Is dehydroepiandrosterone a hormone?
TLDR
The new field of intracrinology or local formation of sex steroids from DHEA in target tissues has permitted major advances in the treatment of the two most frequent cancers, namely breast and prostate cancer, while its potential use as a physiological HRT could well provide a physiological balance of androgens and estrogens, thus offering exciting possibilities for women's health at menopause.
Androgen biosynthetic pathways in the human prostate.
17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD)/17-ketosteroid reductase (KSR) family; nomenclature and main characteristics of the 17HSD/KSR enzymes.
TLDR
Descriptions of the eight cloned 17HSD/KSRs are given and guidelines for the classification of novel 17 HSD-KSR enzymes are presented.
Structure and Expression of a New Complementary DNA Encoding the almost Exclusive 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-lsomerase in Human Adrenals and Gonads
TLDR
A second type of cDNA clone (arbitrarily designated type II) encoding 3βHSD is reported after screening of a human adrenal λgt22A library, which predicts a protein of 371 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 41,921 daltons.
Intracrinology: role of the family of 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases in human physiology and disease.
TLDR
The last and key step in the formation of all estrogens and androgens is catalyzed by members of the family of 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (17 beta-HSDs), which provide each cell with the means of precisely controlling the intracellular concentration of each sex steroid according to local needs.
Characteristics of a Highly Labile Human Type 5 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase1.
TLDR
Using intact transfected cells, type 5 17βHSD shows a substrate specificity pattern comparable to those of human type 3 3αHSD and mouse type 5 18βHSDs, which catalyze more efficiently the transformation of androstenedione to testosterone.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists in the treatment of prostate cancer.
TLDR
Combined androgen blockade (CAB), whereby the androgens of both testicular and adrenal origins are blocked simultaneously at start of treatment with the combination of a GnRH agonist to block the testis and a pure antiandrogen to blocked the action of the androgen produced locally, is developed.
DHEA and Peripheral Androgen and Estrogen Formation: Intracrinology
Despite the fact that the concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in the circulation of adult men and women is higher than that of any other steroid, except cholesterol, the biologic
DHEA and Its Transformation into Androgens and Estrogens in Peripheral Target Tissues: Intracrinology
TLDR
The combination of DHEA with a fourth generation SERM, such as EM-652 (SCH 57068), a compound having pure and potent antiestrogenic activity in the mammary gland and endometrium, could provide major benefits for women at menopause (inhibition of bone loss and serum cholesterol levels) with the associated major advantages of preventing breast and uterine cancer.
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