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Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells
TLDR
It is shown that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ Treg cells induced by TGF-β, and the data demonstrate a dichotomy in thegeneration of pathogenic (TH17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T Cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.
IL-17 and Th17 Cells.
TLDR
The investigation of the differentiation, effector function, and regulation of Th17 cells has opened up a new framework for understanding T cell differentiation and now appreciate the importance of Th 17 cells in clearing pathogens during host defense reactions and in inducing tissue inflammation in autoimmune disease.
Adenosine generation catalyzed by CD39 and CD73 expressed on regulatory T cells mediates immune suppression
TLDR
It is concluded that CD39 and CD73 are surface markers of T reg cells that impart a specific biochemical signature characterized by adenosine generation that has functional relevance for cellular immunoregulation.
IL-21 initiates an alternative pathway to induce proinflammatory TH17 cells
TLDR
It is shown that IL-6-deficient (Il6-/-) mice do not develop a TH17 response and their peripheral repertoire is dominated by Foxp3+ Treg cells, suggesting an additional pathway by which TH17 cells might be generated in vivo.
The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity
TLDR
The data suggest that the Tim-3–galectin-9 pathway may have evolved to ensure effective termination of effector TH1 cells.
PD-L1 regulates the development, maintenance, and function of induced regulatory T cells
TLDR
PD-L1 can inhibit T cell responses by promoting both the induction and maintenance of iT reg cells, defining a novel mechanism for iT reg cell development and function, as well as a new strategy for controlling T reg cell plasticity.
Targeting Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways to reverse T cell exhaustion and restore anti-tumor immunity
TLDR
It is found that T cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim) 3 is expressed on CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in mice bearing solid tumors and combined targeting of the Tim-3 and PD-1 pathways is more effective in controlling tumor growth than targeting either pathway alone.
Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein–specific T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mice Develop Spontaneous Autoimmune Optic Neuritis
TLDR
It is demonstrated that clinical manifestations of CNS autoimmune disease will vary depending on the identity of the target autoantigen and that MOG-specific T cell responses are involved in the genesis of isolated optic neuritis.
Myelin-specific regulatory T cells accumulate in the CNS but fail to control autoimmune inflammation
TLDR
The data suggest that in order for CD4+Foxp3+ T-reg to effectively control autoimmune reactions in the target organ, it may also be necessary to control tissue inflammation.
IL-4 inhibits TGF-β-induced Foxp3+ T cells and, together with TGF-β, generates IL-9+ IL-10+ Foxp3− effector T cells
TLDR
It is shown that IL-4 blocked the generation of TGF-β-induced Foxp3+ Treg cells and instead induced a population of T helper cells that produced IL-9 and IL-10, which constitute a distinct population of helper-effector T cells that promote tissue inflammation.
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